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CLASS OF 1889 




Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 


Mother of Meetings 

Bobbie T. Teague 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

Cane Creek 

Cane Creek Meetinghouse, 1995 

Cane Creek 

Mother of Meetings 


Bobbie T. Teague 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends 
North Carolina Friends Historical Society 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends 

Copyright © 1995 
by North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-068074 
ISBN Number 0-942-72725-8 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends 

605 W. Greensboro-Chapel Hill Rd., Snow Camp, NC 27349 

North Carolina Friends Historical Society 

P.O. Box 8502, Greensboro, NC 27419 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends 

5506 Friendly Ave., Greensboro, NC 27410 

Composed by Friendly Desktop Publishing 
Printed by Thomson-Shore 

f. Gay 


The Beginnings 9 

Mother of Meetings 21 

Burying Ground 32 

Traveling Friends 39 

Five Meetinghouses 44 

Turmoil in a Quaker Community 54 

The Revolutionary War 65 

Slavery 71 

The Civil War 78 

Meetings for Worship and Business 83 

The Spoken Ministry 93 

Religious Instruction 98 

Education 106 

Concern for Missions and Outreach 113 

A Quaker Custom — A Quaker Testimony 119 

Cane Creek Community 124 

The Sword of Peace 138 

Into the Future 142 


Pastoral Ministers 144 

Statistical Report - 1881 145 

Statistical Report - 1981 146 

Meetings for Sufferings 148 

The Charleston Fund 148 

The Baltimore Association of Friends 148 

Works Cited 150 

£ Index 153 

Wilma Griffin 

To Wilma Griffin 

I consider it a privilege and an honor to dedicate this book, 
Cane Creek, Mother of Meetings, to Wilma Griffin. It is my 
small way of saying "Thank you" for the support and help 
that she has given me during the writing of this book. 


Cane Creek Friends Meetinghouse stands just north of the 
intersection of the Sylvan School Road and the Greensboro- 
Chapel Hill Highway in southern Alamance County, North Caro- 
lina. It is a place where people gather to worship as they have for 
more than 240 years. Young and old alike can find within its walls 
kindness, love, devotion, and inspiration. This has always been so. 

It is not much different now than it was when I was a child, 
growing up in the Cane Creek Meeting. My memories from that 
time and place to the present form a kaleidoscope of pictures that 
seem to change, yet forever remain the same. 

One of the stories that anyone who grew up in or around Cane 
Creek Meeting heard over and over again was the story about the 
time when General Cornwallis brought his British soldiers to 
Simon Dixon's Mill during the Revolution. As a youngster I loved 
stories, but to be perfectly honest, I grew rather tired of hearing that 
story over and over. It seemed to me that surely there should be a 
lot of different kinds of stories — not just one. 

I found in Wilma Griffin someone who knew many stories 
about Cane Creek. In fact, she knows more about the history of 
Cane Creek and the Snow Camp area than anyone I know. She has 
been the historian-in-residence for Cane Creek Meeting for well 
over fifty years. Many people come to the area searching for their 
roots. Not many of them go away without learning something 
about their ancestors, for invariably someone will refer them to 
Wilma. And if Wilma doesn't know anything to tell them, their 
ancestors probably were not from this area! 

One of the things that Wilma has worked toward and dreamed 
about for a long time is the publication of a history of Cane Creek 

Cane Creek 

Meeting. This has been done with many of the older meetings in 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting, and she wanted very much to have 
a comparable history for Cane Creek. She made an outline for such 
a project and wrote a synopsis. When she learned that I had similar 
interests, we decided to pool our resources. She kindly placed in my 
hands her writing, her research, and some of her pictures. My own 
research included a thorough reading of the Cane Creek Minutes 
from the very beginning up to the present time. I also had the 
opportunity to do research in the Friends Historical Collection at 
Guilford College. I consider it a rare privilege to have put the 
stories, the experiences, and the facts together in what I believe is 
a readable and enjoyable way. 

The writing of this book has given me a greater understanding 
of and admiration for early Friends. There is indeed more to tell 
about Cane Creek than just the fact that once, long ago, an English 
lord brought his soldiers to a grist mill located on Cane Creek. I 
hope that those who read this account will enjoy it and learn from 
it just as I have done. 

I want to express my many, many thanks to the following: Mary 
Edith Hinshaw, David Teague, and Mary Butt for their patience 
and kindness during the editing process; Mike Arnold for lending 
his computer expertise; John C. Allen for sharing information from 
his research; and especially to my husband, Dwight, for his help, his 
support, and encouragement. 

Bobbie T. Teague 
Snow Camp, NC 


The Beginnings 

Before anything there was the land. There 
has always been the land, a gently rolling 
plateau with meandering streams that find 
their way to the faster— moving waters of Cane 
Creek and on to the swiftly-flowing Haw River; a 
land of rich and fertile soil; a land of tall trees: 
hickory, poplar, and oak; a land of fragrant cedars 
and lofty pines; a land that was for centuries home 
to the red man and his yanasa, his buffalo; a land 
that Dr. John Lederer, a German, explored in 
1 670 . He recorded a visit to Native Americans who 
lived on rich "soyl" (Whitaker 1). These were the 
Sissipahaw, one-time inhabitants of the land that 
today is southern Alamance County in central 
North Carolina. 

Cane Creek 

In 1700, John Lawson, surveyor for the province of North 
Carolina, organized an expedition to explore the land. He de- 
scribed it as a beautiful wild paradise with rich soil, good timber, 
and plentiful game. He seemed especially fascinated with the wild 
"turkeyes." On the third day he reached the "Hau." He also 
recorded his hopes of filling the land with thousands of families. 
Lawson visited several of the local tribes but found only about 
1 ,000 living in the area (Whitaker 2) . By the year 1711, Indian wars 
had forced those to move east and join other tribes. 

Hunters from Pennsylvania were also among the first white 
men to come to the area. It is said that one hunting party 
experienced such a heavy snow that they named their encampment 
"Snow Camp," and the name stuck. The traditionally accepted 
location of their camp was about one-fourth mile east of the site on 
which the meetinghouse would be built. While they were in the 
area, the hunters saw much game, streams filled with fish, fertile 
land, and great forests. This abundance was an inducement for 
them to return permanently. 

The settlement of this wilderness area began as soon as peace 
seemed assured at the close of the Indian wars. At first a few 
"squatters" appeared on the scene, cleared small patches of land, 
and built simple one— room log cabins or three— sided shelters. 
When the Carolina Proprietors saw the advantage of land develop- 
ment, they began to offer land at bargain prices. The Granville 
Estates offered 640 acres for three shillings and a small quitrent, 
while retaining the mineral rights to the property. North Carolina 
governors offered fifty acres free to homesteaders. One Carolina 
resident wrote that 640 acres would cost no more than three or four 
pounds sterling and would be free from taxes (Stuart 1). Motivated 
by the prospect of owning large amounts of land for a small 
investment, many immigrants headed for the Haw River and its 
tributaries. To the north of the Haw came the Scotch-Irish 


The Beginnings 

Presbyterians; along the western tributary, Alamance Creek, were 
the Lutheran and Reformed settlements; and along the southern 
tributary, Cane Creek, the Quakers settled. 

Quakers came to the Carolinas several decades before they 
arrived in the backwoods country of the Piedmont. Early Friends 
emigrated from Scotland, England, and Ireland to the New World. 
They came in search of a better life. To them a better life would have 
included cheap acreage, freedom to pursue a livelihood of their 
choice, and the freedom to worship without restrictions imposed 
by government. 

The patterns of immigration were formed and made necessary 
by the patterns and forms of the land itself. The great bays and 
harbors in the northern part of the continent beckoned the ships 
and their captains with promises of safe landing sites and rich soil 
inland. Thus, the first Quaker immigrants settled in the Tidewater 
and Eastern Shore of the New World. 

Land along the shore farther south was not as hospitable. Great 
Barrier Islands blocked the entrances to the sounds and rivers. Even 
good sailors dreaded the shoals and treacherous coastline of the 
Carolinas. Therefore, the settlement of this land came not with an 
influx of immigrants from Europe but rather from the eastern shore 
of Delaware, Maryland, and New Jersey. 

The first Friends to settle in the area that is now North Carolina 
came to the Albemarle region, to Perquimans and Pasquotank 
Counties, by about 1 665 . Their first recorded meetings for worship 
were held in 1672, at the present town of Hertford, when first 
William Edmondson, and then George Fox, visited the colony. 
Several meetings were set up in the coastal area, and a quarterly 
meeting was begun in 1681 {Faith and Practice 5). 

In 1 732, a company made up mostly of Quakers from Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland acquired 100,000 acres of land in Frederick 


Cane Creek 

County, Virginia, from the colonial government. Here, Hopewell 
Friends Meeting was established in 1735 (Forbish 33). This proved 
to be an important beachhead for the Quaker migration into 
piedmont North Carolina. Many of these families joined others 
who were moving south from Virginia, Pennsylvania, and points 
north into central North Carolina. 

The decision to come south, to uproot their families, and to 
travel some 400 miles into the wilderness was not easy for the early 
pioneers, but many Quakers came. The first of the settlers from 
Pennsylvania and Maryland must have made the journey by 
horseback and on foot and transported supplies on pack animals. 
Mothers with small children rode horseback while the men often 
walked. Traveling was fairly easy through Virginia; however, the 
way grew more difficult the farther south they came. After they left 
the traveled route, they would most likely have followed the Great 
Trading Path that led to Hillsborough. They would have crossed 
the Haw River near the present-day village of Swepsonville, taken 
the lower branch of the trail at this point, and followed it into the 
area along Cane Creek. 

A family's journey to Carolina was not undertaken without 
careful preparations. The first pioneers could not have used wagons 
on Indian footpaths; routes were widened for wagons soon after the 
earliest settlers came. A large wagon was needed to hold the 
necessary items for the journey and to establish a new home. There 
was no room for luxuries; everything must have a useful purpose. 
Occasionally some prized possession would be left in the care of a 
relative with the understanding that it would be brought to 
Carolina at a later time. 

On weekdays the Friends tried to travel at least ten miles, but 
on the Sabbath day they rested. One can imagine the little Quaker 
family — or families — sitting quietly, worshiping in the dense 
forest. After about two months on the road, they would reach their 


The Beginnings 

new home, and a new life would begin at Cane Creek. 

The early settlers claimed land along the stream called Cane 
Creek, named for the prolific amount of reed-like cane growing 
along its banks. Others settled nearby, in the Cane Creek Valley. 
For many years the entire area was known as the Cane Creek 
settlement. This extended into what is now Chatham County on 
the south, and into Randolph County and Guilford County as far 
as New Garden on the west. The eastern boundary was the Eno 
River near Hillsborough. Bass's Mountain and Mary's Creek 
formed the northern boundary (Griffin "History" 3). 

At the time the first settlers came to this area, it was part of 
Bladen or Anson County as identified on the early land grants. In 
1752, Orange County was formed and included the Cane Creek 
settlement. When Chatham County was formed in 1771, the 
northern boundary line ran just south of the Cane Creek Meeting- 
house, thus placing the meetinghouse and members who lived 
north of the line in Orange County, while those living south of the 
meetinghouse were in Chatham County. Records of many of the 
early families show the birth of older children in Orange County 
and the birth of younger children in Chatham County. This leads 
one to conclude that the families had moved when in reality they 
had not. 

In 1849, Alamance County was formed from western Orange 
County, putting Cane Creek in Alamance County (Whitaker 89). 
In 1 895, the Chatham County line was redrawn once gain, placing 
it about three miles south of the meetinghouse (Griffin "History" 
15). Therefore, one would be quite accurate in stating that the Cane 
Creek Meetinghouse has been in Anson or Bladen County, Or- 
ange, Chatham, and Alamance counties. 

Friends arrived in the Cane Creek area as early as 1 749. One of 
the first acts of business of the newly formed Cane Creek Meeting 
was to record the births of four children in that year: John 


Cane Creek 

Chamness, son of Anthony and Sarah Cole Chamness; Nathan 
Pike, tenth child of John and Abigail Overman Pike; Thomas 
Brown, son of William and Hannah Moon Brown; and Sarah 
Wright, daughter of John and Rachel Wells Wright. 

Since the settlement covered such a wide area it would be 
impossible to name the thirty families mentioned in the Minutes, 
but in the immediate Cane Creek area we find these here before 
1751: Joseph and Charity Wells, John and Abigail Pike, George 
Williams, Anthony and Sarah Chamness, William and Hannah 
Brown, Hugh and Mary Laughlin, Benjamin Martin, William 
Aldrage, Thomas Jones, Richard Kemp, James Carter, Zachariah 
Martin, John Tidwell, and John and Rachel Wright. 

Land grants in the area were recorded as early as 1749. George 
Williams' land grant for 645 acres on the north side of Cane Creek 
was recorded on May 1 7 of that year. In 1 750 two grants were made 
from the "Earl of Granville's province — Anson or Bladen County." 
Anthony Chamness was granted 490 acres of land on "Cain Creek" 
and John Pike was granted 280 acres, also on Cane Creek. John 
Wright claimed 404 acres on the north side of Cane Creek joining 
James Williams' property. Four years later in 1754, John Stanfield 
was granted 203 acres on a branch of Cane Creek. In that same year 
on May 30, John Jones was granted 632 acres, "lying on a branch 
of Cain Creek to John Wright's line" (Griffin "History" 2). 

Each land grant carried the names of the chain bearers and the 
surveyors. In all probability these men would have lived in the 
general area, thus providing a more complete list of settlers' names: 
Richard Kemp, Martin Aldrage, William Aldrage, James Williams, 
John Stanfield, William Maris, and William Tidwell (Griffin 

The immigration of the Dixon family followed a typical 
pattern. "William Dixon or Dixson from Parish of Segoe, County 
Armagh and other Friends settled on the west side of Brandywine 


The Beginnings 

Creek in Christiana Hundred, New Castle County, near the 
present village of Centerville and became founders of what later was 
known as Centre Meeting, New Castle County, Delaware" (Cook) . 
A generation later they would move up the Brandywine to Kennett 
Square; from there, farther into Pennsylvania and finally south- 
ward to the Carolinas within a period of seventy-five years or three 

Simon Dixon was one of the first Quaker men to claim land 
along the Cane Creek. He came to the area, then, in Orange 
County, in 1749, and chose a spot on the north bank of the creek. 
There he built a simple cabin, cleared a plot of land for corn, and 
began plans for a homestead. He did not remain in Carolina at this 
time but, instead, returned to Pennsylvania. He was most likely 
traveling with a group of Quaker men. Usually, one man from each 
family, all of whom were probably neighbors or relatives or mem- 
bers of a certain meeting — ones with the "frontier fever" — went 
south together on horseback to stake out their claims, then returned 
north for their families. 

Dixon returned to Cane Creek in 1751, clearly intending to 
stay this time, for he brought his wife Elizabeth, his children, and 
his widowed mother with him. He also brought provisions for his 
livelihood: a set of millstones to be used in the mill which he 
planned to build on Cane Creek. Eventually he would build for his 
family a stone house, but in the beginning a log cabin would have 
to suffice. It was not long until he had built a dam across the creek. 
Soon the mill was built and the millstones installed. When other 
pieces of equipment were in place, Dixon's Mill was ready for 
business, and it would serve the community for approximately two 

Anthony and Sarah Cole Chamness may have had the most 
unusual arrival in the New World and their subsequent settlement 
in the Cane Creek area. Seth Hinshaw tells of their experiences in 


Cane Creek 

The Carolina Quaker Experience-. 

One fascinating story of an indentured servant is that of 
Anthony Chamness. As a boy of thirteen in London, while 
watching ships on the Thames, he was kidnapped, brought 
to America, then sold as an indentured servant. During his 
period of servitude he fell in love with Sarah Cole, an 
indentured servant girl. In order to hasten her day of 
liberation, he volunteered to serve part of her remaining 
time. When at last they were free to get married (ca. 1725) 
their equipment for housekeeping consisted of a broken 
wooden bowl which she had found, and a wooden spoon 
which he had whittled out for her. As soon as possible they 
moved southward to the Cane Creek area, and joined the 
meeting. They reared a large family of thirteen children (22). 

John and Abigail Pike were two more of the early settlers. 
Abigail was a minister, and it was not unusual for them to travel to 
new places and lend their support to the establishment of new 
Friends communities and meetings. They had left Pasquotank 
County in eastern North Carolina in 1738 to travel to Frederick 
County, Virginia, to assist with the Hopewell Meeting, where they 
remained for eleven years (Griffin "History" 2). 

It is possible that the Pikes heard about the new settlement on 
Cane Creek from families moving into the Hopewell area. Many of 
these families planned only to remain at Hopewell for a few years, 
then continue farther south. 

John and Abigail came to the Cane Creek settlement with their 
eight children about 1749. Their certificates of membership from 
Hopewell were placed with the Carver's Creek Meeting in Bladen 
County, North Carolina. This monthly meeting held the certifi- 
cates of not only the Pikes but others in the settlement until the 
establishment of a monthly meeting at Cane Creek. This was an 
accepted practice of the day. Many Quaker pioneers, with their 


The Beginnings 

staunch faith, did not want to be away from the care of a monthly 
meeting even if that meeting were many miles away. 

Abigail Pike was the archetypal Quaker pioneer woman. Such 
a woman would of necessity have been strong, in order to cope with 
the rigors of frontier life. As a minister she would also have been 
strong in her religious faith and obedient to the leadings of the Holy 
Spirit. Her concern for the spiritual life of her neighbors would 
provide opportunities for service which she did not shirk. With 
Abigail's background, then, it is not surprising that in the early part 
of the year 1751, she would stand in a meeting for worship and say 
to the assembled Friends at Cane Creek, "If Rachel Wright will go 
with me, we will attend the Quarterly Meeting at Little River in 
Perquimans County and ask that a meeting be set up here." Friends 
agreed (Griffin "History" 2). 

When she set out for the quarterly meeting, Abigail Pike left 
behind a young son, Nathan, while Rachel Wright also left a small 
child, Sarah. Both families were large, so the youngsters were not 
neglected. Moreover, the fact that the children were left by their 
mothers reveals the determination of both women to fulfill the 
obligation they had undertaken, as well as the depth of their 
concern for the spiritual life of the more than thirty families living 
in the Cane Creek settlement. 

Perquimans County lies about two hundred miles to the east of 
Cane Creek and the trip takes approximately five hours by car now. 
Imagine the difficulty of traveling that distance on horseback 
through virtually uncharted wilderness. No doubt there were a few 
places along the route where a night's lodging and a simple meal 
could be obtained, but the nights when it was necessary to camp in 
the open were far more numerous. The Friends at Cane Creek 
prudently sent other persons with these two courageous women. 
Their exact number, however, is not known for they are grouped 
together as "Several friends from them parts" (Crow 2). 


Cane Creek 

The establishment of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends 
was authorized at the quarterly meeting held at Little River, as 
recorded in their minutes, dated "Sixth month 31st," 1 1751: 

Friends on Cane Creek wrote to our Quarterly Meeting 
Desiring a Monthly Meeting to be Settled amongst them 
which was Refer'd to this Meeting, & Several Friends from 
them parts appeared at this Meeting & acquainted Friends 
that there is Thirty Families and upwards of Friends Settled 
in them parts, and Desire in behalf of themselves and their 
Friends to have a Monthly Meeting Settled amongst them, 
which Request, upon Mature Consideration Friends think 
it proper to grant, and leave to themselves to settle it in the 
most convenient place amongst the body (Crow 3). 

Now would begin the long trek back. The hot September sun 
would make travel more uncomfortable, and there would be the 
incessant insects with which to contend. But the good news Abigail 
Pike, Rachel Wright, and the others carried with them would lessen 
the difficulties. How happy the day of return must have been, not 
only for the families of those returning, but for the entire group of 
Quakers settled along the banks of Cane Creek. At last they would 
have a monthly meeting of their own, and no longer would their 
certificates of membership be held by a faraway monthly meeting. 

Abigail Pike's story does not end with the establishment of the 
meeting at Cane Creek. She was also involved in the effort to secure 
a monthly meeting for Friends at New Garden, and the mere 
thirty— five miles she traveled in that endeavor must have been as 

1 This date was in "Old Style," due to the fact that the British Empire, 
including the American colonies, did not adopt the Gregorian calendar reforms 
until September 1752. Before that time, the year began with March, so that 
"Sixth Month" in the date above refers to August, not June. "Sixth Month 31st, 
1751," would correspond to September 11, 1751 on our modern calendar. 


The Beginnings 

nothing compared to the journey she had made on behalf of Cane 
Creek. Her efforts were again successful, for New Garden Meeting 
was established shortly after the one at Cane Creek. By 1775, 
Abigail, now widowed, would request and receive transfer of her 
membership to New Garden. 

At the first monthly meeting held at Cane Creek Tenth month 
1751, fifteen certificates were presented for membership: John 
Powell; Martha Hiatt and children; John Hiatt; Joseph Doan; 
Robert Summers with his wife and children; Simon Dixon; Aaron 
Jones; Henry Ballenger with his wife and children; William Reynolds 
with his wife and children; and Elizabeth Vestal and her two sons, 
William and Thomas. During the first year of the Cane Creek 
Meeting, sixty-eight certificates were received and approved. These 
early settlers of the community called Cane Creek had proven 
themselves to be strong, God-fearing people. In just a few years 
they had built their homes, provided for their livelihoods, and 
established a monthly meeting which continues to this day (Griffin 
"History" 3). 

House built by John Allen, who moved from London Grove, 
Pennsylvania, to the Cane Creek community in 1749. Picture ca. 1882. 


Cane Creek 

Early Land Grants 

A generalization ( not drawn to scale) 


Mother of Meetings 

Today, Cane Creek Monthly Meeting con- 
sists of one meetinghouse and one congre- 
gation, with most members living within 
a few miles of each other and the meetinghouse. 
This has not always been so. The organization of 
early Friends in North America was patterned after 
the system of organization still in use among Brit- 
ish Friends (Smith 41). Under this system, a 
monthly meeting would consist of a number of 
preparative meetings on a fairly permanent basis. 
Each preparative meeting would prepare business 
pertinent to its area, which would then be for- 
warded to the monthly meeting for consideration. 
Each preparative meeting was also required to send 
a representative to the monthly meeting for busi- 

Cane Creek 

ness, and, should it fail to do so, someone would be appointed to 
inquire into the reason for the absence. 

In the early years the members of Cane Creek Meeting were 
scattered over piedmont North Carolina from New Garden in the 
west to Eno, near Hillsborough, in the east. This created much 
hardship for the faithful Quakers who had to travel long distances 
to meetings for worship and also to monthly business meetings. 
Therefore, it is not surprising that at the first monthly meeting for 
business at Cane Creek, held Tenth month 1751, the Minutes state 
that Friends of New Garden requested "the privilege of holding a 
meeting for worship in that place." In just three months they would 
be granted the privilege of holding a preparative meeting. By 1 754, 
New Garden had grown strong enough to be granted monthly 
meeting status, thus becoming the first of many meetings in this 
area with roots in Cane Creek Monthly Meeting. Having their own 
monthly meeting saved New Garden Friends the inconvenience of 
a thirty-mile ride on horseback to attend meetings for business at 
Cane Creek. 

Another early group who wanted to begin their own meeting 
was not so far away. In 1 754, it is recorded in the April Minutes that 
Friends at Rocky River requested permission to hold a meeting for 
worship for those persons "inhabiting along the banks of Rocky 
River." This permission was given, and today the Rocky River 
Meetinghouse is located in Chatham County about five miles 
south of Cane Creek. 

The monthly meeting's business sessions might rotate or 
circulate among the meetinghouses of the preparative meetings. 
This would more evenly distribute the difficulties of early travel 
among the membership. Cane Creek Monthly Meeting circulated 
its business meetings among the preparative meetings when fea- 
sible. New Garden and Cane Creek rotated the monthly meeting 
until 1754, when New Garden was granted monthly meeting 


Mother of Meetings 

status. At monthly meeting held Twelfth month 1820, Friends at 
Rocky River requested that Cane Creek Monthly Meeting hold its 
meeting for business once in every two months at the Rocky River 
Meetinghouse. This was agreeable, and, in February 1821, Cane 
Creek Monthly Meeting for business was held at Rocky River. This 
practice continued until Rocky River Monthly Meeting was estab- 
lished in 1908. As late as 1902, Cane Creek Monthly Meeting also 
held two meetings yearly with Edward Hill Meeting "whenever it 
was thought best." 

It is interesting to note that there was a Cane Creek preparative 
meeting also. This was done, not in preparation for attaining 
monthly meeting status (for that was already accomplished), but 
rather to take care of matters of concern for the immediate area of 
Cane Creek. It is not at all unusual to read in the monthly meeting 
Minutes that "Cane Creek preparative complained of . . . ." 
followed by a person's name and the offense committed. 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting eagerly met the challenge of 
establishing new meetings. Not only were Cane Creek Friends 
willing to establish these new meetings but they also assumed 
responsibility for their care and oversight. In 1757, William 
Reckett, a friend who traveled throughout the colonies, visited 
Cane Creek and recorded in his journal, 

There is a large body of Friends gathered together in a few 
years from several provinces. They told me they had settled 
there about ten years but had found occasion to build five 
meetinghouses and wanted one or two more. I had good 
and reasonable opportunities with them (Weeks 103). 

There is some confusion about the number of meetings begun 
by Cane Creek. In some cases records have been lost, while in others 
the existing records are not clear. The Cane Creek Minutes are brief 
and factual with little elaboration regarding the business trans- 


Cane Creek 

acted. Through the years some names have been lost or changed. 
However, the meetings which might be regarded as the "children" 
of Cane Creek fall into three categories: those which still exist and 
are still active today, those that were "laid down," and those whose 
beginnings were helped or supported by Friends from other monthly 

In addition to New Garden and Rocky River, five other 
meetings begun by Cane Creek are still active: Centre, Holly 
Spring, Deep River, Spring, and Edward Hill. A sixth, Back Creek, 
received from Cane Creek its initial permission for an indulged 
meeting for worship but would later be established as a monthly 
meeting by Centre. 

Cane Creek 

Spring Rocky River 

1777 prep. 1754 prep. 

1793 est. 1908 est. 

Centre began meeting for worship in 1757, and in 1772, Cane 
Creek gave permission for them to become a separate monthly 
meeting (Griffin "History" 16). Centre Meeting is located on 
Highway 62 in Guilford County. It took its name, Centre, because 


Mother of Meetings 

it was located approximately halfway between Cane Creek and 
New Garden Meetings. 

The minutes of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting dated Eleventh 
month 1753 record that "Friends of Deep River requested to hold 
a meeting for worship among themselves every other Fifth day 
[Thursday] at the home of Thomas Mills." Thus, Deep River 
Monthly Meeting began. Deep River is located in Guilford County 
in the High Point area. 

Five miles to the east of Cane Creek, a group of Friends received 
permission to hold an "indulged meeting" on First days in 1764 
(Cane Creek Minutes April 1764). An indulged meeting is one for 
which a request has been made to have a meeting for worship and 
this request has been granted or indulged. Thirteen years later, in 
1777, this group was given permission to have a preparative 
meeting. Monthly meeting status was attained in 1793 by Spring 

Begun late in the nineteenth century, Edward Hill was Cane 
Creek's last successful attempt to begin a new meeting. Edward Hill 
was started in 1899 and is located in Chatham County near the 
small town of Bonlee. 

Back Creek Meeting was begun in 1785 when Cane Creek 
Meeting approved an indulged meeting for worship. Sometime 
later, however, the people who had the concern for a meeting at 
Back Creek transferred their membership from Cane Creek to 
Centre Meeting. Their concern was then handled by the Centre 
Meeting rather than Cane Creek. At Western Quarterly Meeting, 
held at Cane Creek Eleventh month 1 792, Back Creek was granted 
the status of monthly meeting. Today the meetinghouse is located 
to the west of Asheboro in Randolph County. 

Eight of the meetings begun by Cane Creek have been "laid 
down" or discontinued. As the region became more populated, 


Cane Creek 

some meetings were absorbed by more rapidly growing meetings. 
Sometimes the interest and support for a meeting would decline, 
but whatever the reason, no meeting was ever laid down without 
much consideration. 

The Pee Dee Meeting was started in 1755 and was located in 
Lancaster County, South Carolina, on the Little Pee Dee River. 
From the Minutes of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting, Ninth month 
1755, "Friends on the Pee Dee request for meeting for worship on 
first and fourth days, where as customary care was extended a 
committee was appointed to visit Pee Dee." Two months later, 
permission was granted. William Reckett, in the account of his 
travels to the early meetings, found this meeting to be one whose 
"love to truth and dilligence in attending meetings are worthy of 
notice; for they had nigh one hundred miles to go to the monthly 
meeting they belonged to, and I am informed very seldom missed 
attending" (Weeks 113). The travel was not one-way only, for, 
according to the Minutes of First month 1779, Joseph Cloud and 
John Carter were given permission by Cane Creek Monthly 
Meeting to visit Pee Dee. 

The meeting was laid down around 1799. No reason is given 
in the minutes of Cane Creek, but in that year there was decline of 
meetings in South Carolina and Georgia. Joseph Cloud visited the 
area again at this time presumably in the "interest of removal" 
(Weeks 123, 124). However, the Cane Creek Minutes of June 
1799, reveal that Friends from Pee Dee petitioned the monthly 
meeting to have their rights removed to Deep River in 1 799. Could 
it be that their request precipitated Joseph Cloud's visit, or could 
it be that the request came after his visit to Pee Dee? 

The decade between 1830-1840 saw the demise of several 
meetings begun by Cane Creek. Little is known about several of 
them. Friends from Lower Deep River requested the privilege of 
holding a meeting on Fifth day, 1763. This meeting continued 


Mother of Meetings 

until 1837 when it was laid down. Trotter's Creek was also laid 
down in 1 837. This meeting was located in the southeast corner of 
Guilford County. Brush Creek, located south of Tick Creek, held 
meetings from 1796 until 1830. This meeting was later known as 
the Ridge. There was a meeting located south of Siler City, near 
Glendon, known as Napton Meeting. This meeting was estab- 
lished in 1780 and continued until 1836. Cane Creek Monthly 
Meeting received $30.00 for sale of the Ridge Meetinghouse, but 
there is no record of what happened to the Napton Meetinghouse. 
Older Friends say it was used for a school until about the turn of the 

Mill Creek Meeting was located in Cox's Settlement in an area 
which later became Randolph County, some twenty miles from 
Cane Creek. Little is known about its beginnings, but some 
meetings were probably held in the home of William Cox, who 
built Cox's Mill on Mill Creek. Friends in the area formally 
requested the privilege of holding meetings for worship in 1758. 
Cane Creek finally sent a committee to examine the situation, and 
a favorable report was given in 1760. The Cane Creek Minutes do 
not state the reason, but the privilege of holding meetings for 
worship was suspended temporarily in 1765. There is no further 
word for several years, but in the meantime the Quaker population 
of the area had shifted south and west, with some Friends living as 
far as Upper Richland Creek, seven miles away. Consequently a 
meetinghouse was built and a cemetery started at a location called 
Holly Spring. This meeting was granted the status of Preparative 
Meeting in 1790, and Monthly Meeting in 1818. 

Sandy Creek Meeting was begun in 1 780. In June of that year, 
these Friends asked for the privilege of holding meetings for 
worship on "First and week days." This request was granted with 
the exception noted, "except First day of Quarterly Meeting and 
Fifth day of week at Cane Creek." The meeting was located in 


Cane Creek 

Randolph County, west of Liberty, for about fifteen years. In 1 788, 
Cane Creek Monthly Meeting was asked for advice about "setting 
up another meeting place, being deprived of former house." A 
committee was appointed to advise and assist them, but unfortu- 
nately no record was made of the outcome. This gives rise to an 
unanswered question: why were they deprived of a meeting place? 

Herman Husband owned a large tract of land in that area. 
Whether or not the influence of his Quaker beliefs had anything to 
do with the establishment of the meeting is quite uncertain but 
perhaps plausible. Husband, himself, was not in the area after 1771. 
Seth Hinshaw, in his book Friends at Holly Spring, attributes the 
demise of Sandy Creek to strong Baptist evangelism and migrations 
westward (16). 

Tyson's Meeting was started in 1 783 on Deep River in Chatham 
County near Carbonton. A group of Friends reported to the 
monthly meeting Sixth month 1800 that they had "visited 
families of Friends near Tyson's and in their judgement it would 
be best to discontinue the indulgence of the meeting." The basis of 
their judgment is unknown. 

Dunn's Creek, located "on the Cape Fear," was begun in 1746. 
William Reckett also visited this meeting but found it to be "a small 
gathering . . . but had been much hurt and scattered in their minds 
from the true shepherd" (Weeks 91). Originally, this meeting was 
connected to Eastern Quarterly Meeting, but in 1 760, it was joined 
to the newly formed Western Quarterly Meeting of North Carolina 
Yearly Meeting. It was probably at this time that Cane Creek 
became actively involved in supporting and encouraging the Friends 
at Dunn's Creek. However, their interest and help was not enough 
because the meeting was laid down in 1772. This was the first 
monthly meeting to be laid down within limits of the North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting (Weeks 102). 


Mother of Meetings 

In April of 1815, Long's Mill Meeting was begun near Long's 
Mill on the banks of Cane Creek. Two months prior to this, Friends 
living in the area of Long's Mill had asked that they be allowed to 
hold a meeting "amongst themselves." After the traditional visit of 
a committee, Cane Creek Monthly Meeting granted their request. 
By 1 820, Long's Mill Meeting felt that they were ready to become 
a preparative meeting, but Cane Creek Monthly Meeting did not 
agree and their request for preparative status was denied, as stated 
in the Minutes of August 1 820. Just how long this group continued 
to meet is unknown. 

Hedgecock's Creek Meeting was in Chatham County, but the 
exact location of the meeting is unknown. However, there is a 
Hedgecock's Creek in the general area of Bonlee. Perhaps these 
friends did as so many of the early Friends had done; they built their 
meetinghouse near the creek and chose to name their meeting 
accordingly. The date for its establishment is not known, but it was 
laid down in 1805 (Griffin Notes). 

A small number of the meetings which Cane Creek set up as 
preparative meetings were taken under the care of another estab- 
lished meeting. For example, in 1 880, Cane Creek began a prepara- 
tive meeting in Moore County near High Falls (Griffin Notes). It 
was called Prosperity. Later, this meeting would be under the care 
of Holly Spring Meeting, and it was during this later time that 
Prosperity Monthly Meeting was established. 

Information is very scarce concerning the meeting referred to 
as Dixon's which was laid down in 1 805 (Weeks 336). There is no 
indication of the location. Tradition says that Simon Dixon had a 
second mill east of the one near Cane Creek Meeting. Could it be 
that Dixon's Meeting was close to that mill? This is another 
unanswered question. Stephen B. Weeks attributes the beginning 
of this meeting to Spring, but tradition attributes it to Cane Creek 


Cane Creek 

There was also an early meeting at Eno, near Hillsborough. 
These Friends were charter members of Cane Creek. In fact, there 
may have been a settlement at Eno before the one at Cane Creek, 
as there were meetings for worship in that area by 1751. In 1761, 
a preparative meeting was begun (Newlin 137). 

Friends at Eno seem to have had an independent spirit some- 
what apart from the Quaker mainstream of their time. They did not 
always conform to what was expected of them. A minute from the 
women's monthly business meeting, Sixth month 1767, provides 
the information that a committee of three women was appointed 
to visit Eno because "they did not attend mid-week meeting." The 
committee was to "visit them and bring them to a sense of their 
disorderly conduct." They reported that they had found a luke- 
warm situation at Eno and recommended the privilege of holding 
a meeting be taken away. There are other, similar incidents 
recorded. In July 1767, the Minutes indicate that a different 
committee was appointed to "stir them up to more diligence in 
attending meetings for discipline or whatever else they might find. " 

Eventually Eno would become a subordinate of Spring Meet- 
ing. By 1 847, it became necessary to lay down the meeting (Newlin 
1 37) . The site of the Eno Meeting was one mile north of Hillsborough 
on the Eno River in Orange County. 

Graham Friends Meeting was organized by Western Quarterly 
Meeting in 1907. Cane Creek helped in that endeavor (Griffin 

There are no preparative meetings under the care of Cane 
Creek Monthly Meeting at the present time. The last direct effort 
on the part of Cane Creek to begin a new meeting was an attempt 
in Burlington in the 1970s, which was undertaken in conjunction 
with the other meetings in Western Quarter. This was a second 
attempt to establish a meeting there; the first was in 1893 (Weeks 


Mother of Meetings 

335). Neither attempt was successful. Cane Creek has also given 
monetary support to the North Carolina Yearly Meeting's effort to 
begin a meeting in the Raleigh area at the present time. 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting has been affectionately called 
the "Mother of Meetings." This is an apt title, for one cannot travel 
far in the realm of North Carolina Quakerism without encounter- 
ing one of her "offspring." 


Burying Ground 

The Cane Creek cemetery crowds the meet- 
inghouse as if in death those who lie there 
seek comfort and help, much as they did 
in life. Here lie representatives of several of the 
colonies. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Ger- 
many are also represented. Soldiers from the Regu- 
lator Movement, as well as every war in which our 
country has been involved, lie here. British soldiers 
mortally wounded at the Battle of Guilford Court 
House, who died during Lord Cornwallis' en- 
campment nearby, found a resting place here. The 
well-to-do and the poor sleep side by side. It has 
been said that slaves as well as free black people were 
buried around the edges of the cemetery. If so, their 
graves have since been lost or were left unmarked. 

Burying Ground 

Tradition says that the first burial was that of a child whose 
family was passing through the area. While they were camped here, 
the child died. With sadness, the father dug a grave, wrapped the 
child in a blanket, took the feed trough from the wagon, and used 
it as a coffin. After burying the child, the family moved on. No date 
is given for this burial. However, the earliest dated stone in the 
cemetery bears the mark "M" — 1752. Could that be the child? 
Perhaps others were buried earlier in unmarked graves, but the 
earliest marked stone is that of Ruth Dixon Doan — 1764. Joel 
Brooks's death and burial were recorded in the monthly meeting 
Minutes of Ninth month 1764. No marker for his grave can be 

Adhering to the Quaker belief in simplicity, many of the older 
graves are marked with small field stones bearing only an initial and 
a date. Sometimes there is only a date. Friends kept careful records 
of births and deaths that provide valuable information today. 
However, the graves of many non-members are lost. 

There are many vacant areas in the old cemetery where un- 

A part of the old section of Cane Creek Cemetery 


Cane Creek 

Jesse Dixon (1784-1873) 

marked graves are located. In 1 828, the yearly meeting forbade the 
use of "manufactured stones," and a committee visited each cem- 
etery to see that such stones were removed (Griffin "History" 10). 
The order must have been rescinded later or the monthly meeting 
chose to disregard it, as shown by the kinds of stones over most of 
the graveyard. It is said that Jesse Dixon (1784-1873) selected a 
stone, carved his birth date, and asked his brother to put his death 
date on it and place it at his grave. 

A walk through the cemetery reveals many interesting and 
unusual markers. Prompted by the Historical Society of Southern 
Alamance County, whose purpose was honoring pioneer families, 
Cane Creek Monthly Meeting planned to hold annual reunions of 
the descendants of its founding fathers. During each reunion a 
grave marker would be unveiled in honor of one of the pioneer 


Burying Ground 


Dedication of Simon Dixon's grave marker, 1925. 

The first reunion was held in October 1925, and a marker 
fashioned from a millstone was placed at the grave of Simon Dixon 
(1728-1781) and his wife, Elizabeth Allen Dixon ( 1 728- 1 793) . In 
August 1926, a marker was unveiled for John Allen, a pioneer 
teacher. A year later, the Stuart family placed a marker for their 
ancestor, Alexander Stuart, a farmer. Appropriately, a sickle was 
embedded in this marker (Griffin "History" 11). 

John and Abigail Overman Pike were honored in 1928. Both 
were leaders and "weighty" Friends 1 during their lifetimes. After 

^'Weighty" Friends are those whose opinions and counsel carried more 
weight in the meeting due to merit. 


Cane Creek 

the death of her husband, Abigail Pike left Cane Creek and went to 
Muddy Creek, near Deep River, to live with her son. She died and 
was buried there in February of 1 78 1 . The cemetery of this meeting 
still exists on the outskirts of the present town of Kernersville in 
Forsyth County, and the grave which is thought to be Abigail's is 
outlined with handmade brick. Thus, the marker at Cane Creek 
honors her memory, not her actual grave. 

William and Rebecca Dixon Marshall were honored in 1929. 
Their marker records their gift of land for the meetinghouse. Later 
on, the Stout family honored Peter Stout, affectionately called the 
"Quaker," and his wife, Margaret Cypert Stout. He had sat "at the 
head of the Meeting" for many years, as well as serving in many 
other capacities. 

In 1 94 1 , a British flag flew once again at Cane Creek. This time 
the flag was a gift; it was sent by the King of England, George VI. 
The Saxapahaw Boy Scouts, Troop 46, unveiled a marker erected 
to the memory of the British soldiers who were buried in the 
cemetery in 178 1 . The original marker was a large field stone with 
the dedication plaque attached. However, soon after the dedication 
a large millstone was found and the plaque was transferred to it 


Burying Ground 

Members of the Saxapahaw Boy Scouts, Troop 46, in 1941, 
unveiling the marker erected in memory of the British soldiers 
who were buried in the cemetery in 1781. Boy on left: Albert Cheek. 

(Griffin "History" 11). The millstone was embedded in a large 
concrete block and is about five feet tall. The inscription on the 
stone reads, "A memorial to British Troops who died in the Old 
Meeting house during Cornwallis' encampment here on his retreat 
from Guilford Court House March 1781. Erected by troop 46 
B.S.A. Henry Overman leader, who died before completing it." 

No doubt the kind of program for each marker dedication was 
different. A typical program was probably very much like the one 
for the Dixon-Marshall reunion on August 16, 1930. On that day 


Cane Creek 

the program began at 1 0:30 A.M. with a welcome by the president 
of the Historical Society, E. P. Dixon. A period of silent worship 
followed. The audience participated in song. Then R. H. Hutchison, 
a local historian, told the story of the Marshall family. After another 
song, the pastor of Cane Creek, Lewis McFarland, unveiled and 
dedicated the marker. A picnic lunch was served at noon. The 
afternoon was reserved for a social hour or hours. 

After the first few years, membership and interest in the 
historical society waned and the practice of erecting markers to 
honor certain families was discontinued. However, some forty 
years later in 1973, Hannah Hadley Dixon Stanfield was honored 
by her descendants. The last pioneer family to be honored was that 
of Anthony and Sarah Cole Chamness, in 1975. Both of these 
markers were given and erected by family members and not by any 

Today one can walk among the simple rocks and stones and 
envision those early Friends. More elaborate stones mark the graves 
of those who have been interred in more recent years. A sense of 
history and peace pervades this place which has seen much sorrow 
in its 240 years. 


Traveling Friends 

One factor enormously important in the 
religious life of early Friends in North 
Carolina was the visits of traveling 
Friends. This was a unique ministry practiced 
faithfully and prayerfully by many early Friends, 
even those who had to cross seas. 

The isolation of the wilderness would have 
been much harder to endure had it not been for the 
life-giving visits of Friends who traveled, under a 
concern, to the remote places where other Friends 
had settled. These people brought more than en- 
couragement and inspiration. Traveling ministers 
brought instruction to Friends who were far re- 
moved from the mainstream of the Quaker move- 
ment and who needed information and guidance 

Cane Creek 

in the proper conduct of their meetings and daily lives. Considering 
the hardships of travel at the time, it is truly amazing to know of the 
large number of Friends who came to Cane Creek and the large 
number of visits undertaken by members of Cane Creek to distant 
places as well. 

When the visitors arrived at their destinations, they attended 
any public meetings that were held, either monthly meetings or 
meetings for worship. At that time they would share "what God had 
laid on their hearts" with the members of the meeting. Their 
visitations were not limited to the public meetings, however. The 
travelers would also visit families and individuals, if necessary, to 
carry out their charges. There would be time to pray together and 
talk together, as well as meditate and rejoice together. 

It must have been an exciting time in the settlements when such 
visitors came. Arrangements would have to be made for their 
accommodations. Usually there would be two or three in the party, 
sometimes more. Early homes were small but visitors were cordially 
welcomed. In some cases the family may have had to double up — 
or triple up — on their normal sleeping arrangements, but this 
would have been done gladly, for visitors brought glimpses of other 
Friends and relieved the isolation of many families. 

Cane Creek Minutes mention numerous visits of concerned 
Friends. One of the earliest was that of Catherine Phillips, an 
English Friend, in December 1753. She tells of her visit in her 

On the 29th we got to cane Creek, another new settlement 
of Friends with whom we had a meeting the 30th wherein 
we were rather low, yet favored with peace in our spirits. 

On the thirty-first she arrived at Eno, then on 

2nd day of 1 st month 1754. My companion, Mary Peisley, 
returned to Cane Creek to be at the week day meeting. I 


Traveling Friends 

returned to Cane Creek on the fourth. Same day we had a 
meeting at Rocky River and was satisfactory and returned 
to Cane Creek for First Day Meeting. On the 7th we left for 
Carver's Creek. Jeremiah and John Wright accompanied 
us (Griffin "History" 18). 

From the Cane Creek Minutes we read that 

Friend Mary Kirby accompanied by Grace Crosdale of 
Pennsylvania on 3rd of 3rd month 1759, Rachel Wilson of 
old England with Sarah Jenny of Virginia 7th of 1 st month 

These names are only a very few of the hundreds who visited in the 
early years. Almost without exception their visits were recorded as 
inspirational and uplifting. 

Some of the visitors were not very complimentary. Consider a 
report from John Griffith's journal, 1765: 

The meeting at Cane Creek is very large, but most members 
seem void of solid sense and solemnity, a spirit of self- 
righteousness and contention was felt. Went to their First 
Day Meeting, but there was much darkness and death over 
them. The leaven of the Pharisees seemed to prevail (Weeks 

Cane Creek Meeting not only recorded visits; the members of 
the meeting often felt led to visit and attend other meetings in the 
"Service of Truth." A search of the Cane Creek Monthly Meeting 
Minutes reveals that Rachel Wright traveled in the lower parts of 
Virginia with Hannah Ballinger in July 1752, and Abigail Pike and 
Mary Jones visited the meeting at Thomas Pugh's later that same 
year. Joseph Cloud made many visits in the years between 1 779 and 
1804 to Tyson's Settlement, to "Friends on the Western Waters," 
to eastern Pennsylvania, and to Europe in 1804. Other visitors 


Cane Creek 

from Cane Creek included John Carter, Mincher Litler, and 
Zachariah Dicks. 

Sometimes the meeting would give specific instructions for the 
visits. For example, in Sixth month 1767, a committee of three 
women was appointed to visit the Eno Meeting 

and bring them to a sense of their disorderly conduct; also 
to visit all the branches of Cane Creek Meeting to stir them 
up to more diligence in attending meetings for discipline, 
or whatever else is needed. . . . 

One of the women who made many visits as she served her 
meeting was Abigail Overman Pike. She and her husband were 
charter members of Cane Creek Meeting and served it diligently for 
many years. Abigail was also a Friends minister. Tradition says that 
it was in that capacity that she would ride out to the army camps and 
preach to the soldiers. It is not clear which army allowed her to 
preach. As in all things the retelling of stories often blurs the events. 
It is possible that it could have been both the British and the 
American forces. Abigail transferred her membership from Cane. 
Creek to New Garden in 1775. One could assume that the events 
told here could have happened near the time of the Battle of 
Guilford Court House and the Battle of New Garden. It is not 
likely that she would have been intimidated by either the British or 
the Americans. General Nathanael Greene, himself a Quaker at one 
time, may have endorsed her ministry, because she was said to be 
the only minister allowed within the lines. She was not allowed to 
dismount; therefore, her sermons were preached from horseback. 

One night while returning from such a visit, Abigail met friends 
along the way, and soon they came to where the road divided. One 
fork of the road led straight home, and the other led past the 
graveyard. They debated which way to go; one remarked that a 
ghost could be seen in the graveyard. Abigail whipped up her horse 


Traveling Friends 

saying, "We will go this way then, I have long wanted to see a ghost, 
shake hands with it and ask, 'Is it well with thee?"' When they 
arrived at the cemetery, there did appear to be a ghost standing with 
arms outstretched as though welcoming them. Unafraid, Abigail 
rode up to it and called back, "Come on friends, it is only a big 
cobweb on a bush." 

Another story which has been passed down through the genera- 
tions tells of her pitcher. Abigail had a set of "Queensware" 
porcelain china dishes. These were very rare in those days, particu- 
larly in a backwoods cabin. One day British soldiers came to her 
cabin searching for food and overturned her cupboard. She tried to 
catch some of the dishes in her outstretched apron but was only able 
to save one small pitcher. That pitcher was passed down through 
the years from one daughter to another and was last reported in a 
museum in Oklahoma in 1 975 . What a story that pitcher could tell! 

The ministry of visiting Friends has vanished almost com- 
pletely. As with so many other things, something meaningful has 
passed from the scene. 


Five Meetinghouses 

Although Cane Creek Monthly Meeting 
was not organized until 175 1 , one may be 
sure that early Friends established meet- 
ings for worship in their homes, as all Friends did 
just as soon as they settled. The first meetinghouse 
was probably made of logs, as that was the accepted 
and available building material at that time. It 
would have been large enough to seat a small 
number of people, the men on one side and the 
women on the other. As was the custom of Friends 
meetinghouses, there would have been a facing 
bench across the front of the meeting room for the 
use of elders, ministers, overseers, and invited 
guests. This first meetinghouse stood near the 
center of the Cane Creek settlement, about one 
mile east of the location of the present meeting- 

Five Meetinghouses 

house. It was north of the Cane Creek, on or near the farm of the 
late Lawrence McPherson. The unmarked site is near the Snow 
Camp intersection, about one and a half miles north on North 
Carolina State Road 1 004. The meetinghouse would have stood on 
the far side of the field, to the right of the road at that point. 

The meetinghouse was located on a portion of land which was 
a part of the land grant of John Stanfield. In his will, dated August 
4, 1 75 5 , he willed a parcel of land including the "meetinghouse lot" 
to his son Thomas. By the early 1900s the Thomas Stanfield land 
belonged to John Thompson. His will, dated 1907, states: 

To my four living sons and their heirs, Simeon, David, 
Jonathan, and William Jesse, all my real estate consisting of 
homeplace, fifty-two acres, two Marshall places — 156 
acres, and a lot known as the meetinghouse lot. 

The heirs divided the property and William Jesse's part included 
the meetinghouse lot. Today the McPherson farm includes the 
land which belonged to William Jesse Thompson (Griffin 
"History" 4). 

In 1764, William and Rebecca Marshall gave twenty-six acres 
of land and "the house on it" to be used for the meeting. It is not 
clear if this house was made into the second meetinghouse for Cane 
Creek or if a new meetinghouse was built on the property. If a new 
building was constructed, it seems reasonable that it would have 
been a log meetinghouse similar to the first one. Tradition says that 
this second meetinghouse stood east of the present building, near 
the center of the cemetery. How long this building was used is not 
known, but it is recorded that it underwent renovation and 
extensive repairs in the late 1780s. At a monthly meeting held 
Ninth month 1786, a communication was read from the yearly 
meeting committee for Western Quarterly Meeting. It stated that 
John Townsend and Mark Reaves, from Ireland, had visited 


Cane Creek 

Southern Friends and that they had found meetinghouses in 
"disrepair in remote places . . . some scarcely fit to hold meetings 
in." They felt that this was caused by the "difficulties and straitened 
circumstances to which Friends have been reduced by the calami- 
ties of war." These two men had given £200 in Pennsylvania 
currency to help those meetings least able to repair their meeting- 
houses. They further instructed that there should be a "proper 
number of windows glazed with glass to give light and there should 
be shutters." The members of the monthly meeting agreed to use 
their "best endeavor to repair and put in order the meetinghouse 
agreeable to the above." 

At the time of William and Rebecca Marshall's gift to Cane 
Creek in the 1760s, the British government forbade anyone to give 
land for a church except to the Church of England, so the deed for 
the land was made to four members of the meeting: Peter Stout, 
Benjamin Piggot, William Piggot, and David Vestal. In 1798, the 
North Carolina General Assembly gave churches the right to hold 
property. However, it was not until 1801 that Cane Creek's land 
was deeded to the trustees of the meeting. The amount of land held 
by the meeting was reduced in 1 807, when the Marshalls' son, 
John, asked the meeting to sell him ten acres of his parents' original 
land gift. The meeting agreed and the money received was used to 
make some repairs on the meetinghouse (Griffin "History" 5). 

In the early 1 800s, a third meetinghouse was built. Probably by 
this time, the log structure was again in need of extensive repairs and 
the growth of the population demanded more space. The prudent 
Quakers would have concluded that it would be better to build 
anew than to spend money on the old structure, although the 
benches from the earlier meetinghouse were used again. The new 
building was a typical meetinghouse of its time. The facade was 
made of brick up to the height of the windows, and above that was 
frame. It was partitioned through the center in order to allow the 


Five Meetinghouses 

men and women to meet separately for their business sessions, as 
was then customary among Friends. A facing bench extended 
across the front of the meeting room, as was also usual. The new 
meetinghouse, however, was said to have a heating system, which 
was very unusual for that time. This building burned in January, 
1879. There was some speculation that the heating system may 
have caused the fire, but its exact cause was never determined 
(Griffin "History" 5). 

Soon after the fire a committee consisting of Samuel Allen, 
Hugh Dixon, Solomon Dixon, William Henley, and Louis 
Hornaday was appointed to solicit subscriptions for a new build- 
ing. A year later this committee reported that it had received 
between $500 and $600 in subscriptions and that the meeting- 
house was so nearly completed that an additional $ 1 00 would finish 
it. This would be the fourth meetinghouse for Cane Creek. It was 
a large frame building forty feet wide and sixty-seven feet long, with 
an eighteen-foot ceiling. There was a ministers' gallery extending 
across the front. The windows along both sides of the interior were 
quite tall. These were painted white and had dark green outside 
shutters. Another feature was an elevated floor which was slanted 
toward the front. There were two aisles in the meetinghouse with 
longer benches in the middle section. Two sets of shorter benches 
were on either side of the pulpit at right angles to the main section 
of benches. One set was known as the choir corner, and the other 
was known as the amen corner. 

Just before the building was finished, the Philadelphia Meeting 
for Sufferings gave $500 from the Charleston Fund toward the 
construction, with the provision that as much of the money as 
necessary should be used to install a moveable or sliding partition 
through the center of the building. This condition was accepted by 
the monthly meeting. 

In March 1880, meeting for worship was held in the new 


Cane Creek 


1 i 

Is , 

v. ! 
«• | 

V, : 5 

, 4 


j 1 


g : 


The fourth meetinghouse, 1880-1942 

building for the first time, and it served the Cane Creek congrega- 
tion until Sunday, January 4, 1942, when fire again destroyed the 
meetinghouse. Just as people were gathering for Sunday School, the 
fire was discovered. Flames roared quickly through the building 
and nothing was saved except the piano and a few chairs. Once 
again there was speculation that a faulty heating system might have 
been the culprit, but no exact cause for the fire was determined. 
While the coals were still smouldering, a prayer service was held on 
the front lawn. 

The members decided to hold a meeting later in the day at 
Sylvan School to begin plans for rebuilding. At the afternoon 
meeting a building committee was appointed. It was made up of 
Elbert Newlin (the pastor) , Jesse Thompson, Claude Coble, Walter 


Five Meetinghouses 

Thomas, James Henley, Lorraine Griffin, and Ruth Moon. Sunday 
services would be held at nearby Sylvan School until the new 
building could be completed. 

Work was soon started on the brick building which would be 
Cane Creek's fifth meetinghouse, the one in use today. Through- 
out the nine months of rebuilding, donations were received from 
many sources: people with ties to Cane Creek, Friends from across 
the yearly meeting, other church congregations, businesses, and the 
membership of Cane Creek itself. Local building supply stores were 
generous with gifts of materials, some free and some at reduced 
prices. People with building skills offered their services, while 
others helped by keeping materials ready and handy for the 

In their final report to the monthly meeting, the building 
committee explained: 

Paul P. Thompson had the brick contract at $8.50 per 
thousand for the labor. He directed this work up to the 
main floor, then he went into government work, and 
Morris Roach became the brick foreman and finished the 

Charlie Stout was the carpenter foreman at 55<£ per hour, 
and we are grateful to him for his fine cooperation and 
excellent work. 

There was also payment for the labor of both man and beast: thirty 
cents was allowed for a workman's labor, and fifteen cents per hour 
for a team of horses (Griffin "History" 7). 

The meetinghouse was dedicated on Homecoming Day, Oc- 
tober 6, 1942. On the morning of the dedication, there remained 
a debt of $1,772.19 to be paid on the building. At the beginning 
of the service, the pastor, Elbert Newlin, explained the situation 
and asked for pledges. The congregation responded with great 


Cane Creek 

Cane Creek Meetinghouse, 1942 

fervor and in a brief time the building was debt-free (Griffin 
"History" 6). 

There are no exact figures available for the total cost of the 
building, but it would probably have been somewhere between 
$30,000 and $35,000. Compare this with the $ 1 ,050 the meeting- 
house cost in the 1780s. Of course, the cost of building materials 
and furnishings was much less then. One example of the differences 
in costs may be seen in the previous building committee's report, 
dating from 1 880. The earlier committee reported the purchase of 
two stovepipes with one knee for $21.15; 1,540 feet of lumber at 
$20.79; labor for thirty-eight benches at $32.55; nails and screws 
for $8.40; six chairs at $6.00; four bracket lamps and chimneys at 
$4.25; and five tables at $10.00 (Griffin "History" 8). 

A unique feature of the present building was the water arrange- 
ment made with Jim Dixon, who lived just across the road from the 
meetinghouse. The meeting put a water pump into Mr. Dixon's 
well, with the understanding that he would pay for its operating 


Five Meetinghouses 

costs and any repairs that might be necessary. If he should sell the 
property, the meeting would retain the water rights. Mr. Dixon did 
not want any money for the use of his well, only the benefit of using 
the pump for his own water supply (Griffin "History" 7). 

The water arrangement with the Dixons has long been obso- 
lete, and with its passing went a tradition for the young people. It 
was their custom after an evening service to stroll across the road to 
"Mr. Jim's" for a drink of water. This provided an opportunity for 
couples to do a little "hand holding" on the way over and back. 

Hardy Slate and Cora Lee Gibson in Quaker dress 
for the Bicentennial Celebration, 1951 


Cane Creek 

Changes have been made to both the interior and the exterior 
of the meetinghouse through the years. In the late 1960s, services 
were once again held in Sylvan School while a front porch and steps 
were added to the building. Also at that time, a walkway around the 
basement was installed, as well as new classrooms, a pastor's study, 
and a small kitchen in the basement. A ramp was added to the north 
entrance to provide access for the elderly and the handicapped. 

In 1984, fire once again threatened the building. This time, 
fortunately, the fire was discovered quickly and only minor damage 
resulted. The meetinghouse did, however, require a new coat of 
paint and new carpeting. 

Through the years, there have been memorial gifts which have 
added to the comfort and beauty of the meetinghouse. Cushions for 
the benches were given in memory of Lester and Olive Allen by 
their son, George Allen. Pulpit chairs were given by Plato Stuart of 
Phoenix, Arizona, in memory of his parents, Burton and Emma 
Stuart. The electrically lighted sign on the front lawn was given by 
Delia Stuart in memory of her husband, Plato. Bibles for the pews 
were given by Lu and Carl Longest. 

Today the meetinghouse is cooled in summer and heated in 
winter quite comfortably, and sometimes it is easy to forget that 
these conveniences have not always been available. For example, in 
1920, a committee was appointed to install electric lights in the 
meetinghouse even though electricity was not available in rural 
areas at that time. A thirty-two volt storage battery was purchased 
and the building was wired. The initial cost was $155.77, and the 
monthly bill was eighty cents. This system served the meeting until 
1935, when Duke Power extended their lines into the area (Griffin 
"History" 9). 

The facilities of the meeting expanded with the completion of 
the fellowship building in 1980. It is located to the rear of the 


Five Meetinghouses 

meetinghouse. Carpentry students from Southern Alamance High 
School, under the direction of William Coble, did much of the 
woodwork, greatly reducing the cost of the building. Thus, through 
donations and careful stewardship of funds, the building was debt- 
free when it was ready for use. 

There is another small building at the back of the meetinghouse 
which houses the big pot used for making Brunswick stew, the sale 
of which has greatly contributed to meeting the building needs of 
Cane Creek for many years. The first Brunswick stew at Cane Creek 
was made for the meeting's first Fall Festival in 1948. A large 
washpot over an open fire was used to hold the mixture of beef, 
chicken, pork, and various vegetables. On this particular occasion, 
a program had been planned for the morning, with Kerr Scott as the 
speaker. Because the stew required constant stirring, that task was 
assigned to two or three of the younger girls. Having been one of 
the girls, this writer can testify that we were delighted to assume the 
responsibility for stirring the stew because we escaped the confines 
of the planned program and what we thought would be a dull 
speech . What we did not know was that the so-called "dull 
speechmaker" would soon be the governor of North Carolina. 

A washpot over an open fire that required constant stirring was 
the way to make Brunswick stew at Cane Creek until the late 1 970s, 
when the pothouse was built. At that time, gas replaced wood as the 
fuel for cooking the stew. Unfortunately, the constant stirring is 
still required. 


Turmoil in a Quaker 

For many years life among the Quakers who 
had settled along Cane Creek was peaceful. 
Farmers tilled their fields; the blacksmith 
hammered at his forge; Simon Dixon kept his mill 
wheel turning; bonnetted women and black-hat- 
ted men went to meeting on First Day. This group 
of Friends prospered in the years following the 
establishment of Cane Creek Meeting. In other 
places, however, events were taking place that 
would shake the peaceful Quaker community and 
challenge its determination to remain "apart from 
things worldly." 

In the eastern part of the colony at New Bern, 
Governor Tryon was building for himself an enor- 
mously expensive palace. Its cost (£15,000) would 

Turmoil in a Quaker Community 

place an unbearable tax burden on the farmers who had settled in 
the Piedmont section of North Carolina. 

In "Olde England," the Earl of Granville paid a gambling debt 
to Lord Burrington, a former governor of Carolina, with ten 
thousand acres of land in the colony. Deeding this same tract of 
land to Edward Mosely along with Granville's other acreage 
without separating the two tracts would add to the confusion in 
drawing up deeds in the future. Mosely served as Granville's land 
agent for several years until he was replaced in the early 1 760s by 
two unscrupulous men, Childs and Corbin. It was at this point that 
corruption and greed began to enter into land deed transactions 

One of the agents — it is not clear which — tricked several 
settlers by pretending to be a lawyer. As such, he pronounced many 
of the farmers' deeds invalid because they were signed, "Granville, 
by his agent" rather than "The Right Honourable Granville, by his 
agent." As a result of this and other forms of trickery, some of the 
land was sold with an immense profit going to the land agent. 

By 1 766, the corruption had extended to the collection of taxes, 
which were already exorbitant. One couple was charged fifteen 
pounds — about $75.00 — for a wedding license (Stuart 2). If a 
farmer could not pay the excessive tax levied on his farm, he might 
find that his plow or his cow or his crop would be confiscated. 
Homes were invaded and any silverware, fine china, or precious 
hand-woven linen and woolen goods brought from the old country 
that could be found were taken despite the desperate and tearful 
protests of the grief-stricken housewives. It is said that on at least 
one occasion a farmer's wife had the dress taken from her back and 
sold to the highest bidder to pay the taxes on the farm. These tax 
collectors were generally accompanied by armed guards, and Gov- 
ernor Tryon himself admitted that "the Sheriffs have embezzled 
more than one-half the public money ordered to be raised and 


Cane Creek 

collected by them" (Whitaker 21). 

Protest was in the air. Existing conditions gave rise to the 
Regulator Movement, which was an effort on the part of the tax- 
burdened farmers to "regulate" the affairs of the Colony in accor- 
dance with reasonable justice and harmony. For the most part, the 
men who formed the Regulator Movement were honest, honorable 
men who believed that the rampant injustices to which they were 
subjected could be corrected through "true and proper regulation." 

It was during this period of unrest and protest throughout the 
Piedmont area, now known as Alamance, Chatham, and Guilford 
counties, that one of the most unusual members of Cane Creek 
entered the scene. Herman Husband was a convinced Quaker. His 
brother had led him to become a Friend in Maryland in 1724, and 
by 1751 he had migrated to eastern North Carolina. He joined 
Carver's Creek Meeting in Bladen County, and that meeting later 
granted him a certificate of removal to Cane Creek Meeting. The 
receipt of Husband's certificate was recorded in the Cane Creek 
Minutes of Twelfth month 1755. 

Husband was apparently not satisfied with the local situation, 
as he left in 1759 for West River in Maryland (Weeks 179). 
Wanderlust seemed to afflict him, however, and he returned to 
Cane Creek in July 1761, this time taking possession of land along 
Sandy Creek. Something other than wanderlust may have facili- 
tated his return because in less than a year he had married Mary 
Pugh, the daughter of one of his neighbors. In the Cane Creek 
Monthly Meeting Minutes, Seventh month 1762, "Friends re- 
ported that the marriage of Herman Husband and Mary Pugh had 
been accomplished orderly." 

Husband was attracted to the cause of those who were being 
tricked and cheated by the government, and he helped organize the 
group of protesters who called themselves the Regulators. Gover- 
nor Tryon, on the other hand, called them "a faction of Baptists and 


Turmoil in a Quaker Community 

Quakers trying to overcome the Church of England" (Weeks 178). 
Husband became the spokesman for the Regulators, and several 
times he petitioned the court and Governor Tryon for redress, 
asking that the colonists' grievances be heard. He also wrote and 
distributed pamphlets explaining the position of the Regulators. 
From accounts of Husband's life, we learn that he was quite 
outspoken and opinionated. This latter characteristic would get 
him into trouble with the Quakers. 

A controversy began at Cane Creek that has become known 
through the years as the "Rachel Wright Affair." In his book, 
Southern Quakers and Slavery, Stephen B. Weeks explains it thusly: 
Rachel Wright, a "weighty Friend," committed some disorder. She 
was duly "complained of," and, to settle the matter according to 
Friends discipline, she offered a paper condemning her behavior, 
which was accepted. Then for some reason now unknown, she 
asked for a certificate to travel to Fredericksburg, Virginia. Some 
members of the monthly meeting did not want to give her the 
certificate, which would have functioned partly as a letter of 
introduction to other Friends and partly as an official endorsement 
by the meeting. A wrangle resulted and the meeting refused to grant 
the certificate. The matter was appealed to Western Quarterly 
Meeting, which advised that the certificate be granted (180). 

Herman Husband, though, did not approve of the decision and 
in typical fashion was very vocal in his disapproval — so much so 
that, in January 1764, the meeting disowned him for "speaking 
against the actions and transactions of this meeting." As for 
Husband's reaction, there is an old story that when he heard about 
the disownment, he sat down, took off his shoes, shook the "dirt of 
Quakerism" off them, put them back on, and walked away. 

However, the Wright affair was not over, and Husband's 
influence continued to be felt in the meeting. Some of his friends 
signed a paper expressing dissatisfaction with the meeting's deci- 


Cane Creek 

sion to disown Husband. At this point the quarterly meeting 
offered the following advice (although it is unclear whether advice 
had been requested): "appoint a committee to deal with the 
malcontents' leaders." This group included Jos. Maddock, Isaac 
Vernon, Thomas Branson, John and William Marshall, Jonathan 
Cell, and "divers others." In February 1764, the committee re- 
ported that "there might be dangerous consequences to allow them 
[the malcontents] to be active members until suitable satisfaction 
is made for their outgoings." Maddock, Cell, and the Marshalls 
appealed the matter to the yearly meeting, which responded that 
Western Quarterly Meeting had done wrong in granting a certifi- 
cate to Rachel Wright in the first place. Furthermore, the quarterly 
meeting should restore to active membership those who had signed 
papers expressing dissatisfaction with the disownment of Herman 
Husband. The quarterly meeting, accordingly, acknowledged itself 
wrong in the matter of Rachel Wright and restored the persons 
under the ban to active membership. Herman Husband's disown- 
ment, however, was not rescinded. (Griffin "History" 21). 

There is no record of what happened to Husband's first wife, 
Mary Pugh, but his choice of a second wife, Amy Allen, again 
caused controversy within the meeting. This second marriage made 
him a brother-in-law of Simon Dixon, which would cause still 
more controversy in the next few years. A monthly meeting minute 
dated Fifth month 1765 reads, "Amy Allen Husband disowned for 
marrying out of unity. " Eleven months later the Minutes reveal that 
three women and sixteen men were complained of for attending the 
marriage, which "was not accomplished according to the good 
order of Friends." Moreover, Amy's mother, Phoebe Allen Cox, 
was complained of for consenting to the marriage and accompany- 
ing her daughter. Once again the quarterly meeting and the yearly 
meeting were drawn into the local matter involving Husband. 

Fifteen months after the wedding, Ninth month 1766, the 


Turmoil in a Quaker Community 

committee appointed to visit with those who were complained of 
reported that these persons were unwilling to condemn their 
conduct. The committee then asked that a "testification" be 
prepared against them. The papers were presented to those in- 
volved and the meeting disowned them. 

In the meantime, Herman Husband had continued to support 
the cause of the Regulators, writing tracts denouncing unfair taxes 
and corrupt land dealings, and arranging meetings of the dissenters. 
The Colonial records show some aspects of the trouble, as well as 
the involvement of some of the members of Cane Creek with the 
Regulator movement. The following letter, dated May 10, 1768, 
from William Piggatt (Pickett) to Edmund Fanning, Governor 
Tryon's representative at Hillsborough, recalls some of the tension 
of the time: 

Those that calls themselves Regulators has entertained an 
opinion that brother Jeremiah and I was Qualified when 
we were at court that Simon Dixon and Harmon Husbands 
was the Ringleaders of the mob and we understand that we 
are much threatened on the account of it therefore if thee 
would be pleased to send a few lines to Simon Dixon 
wheather it be true or foulse thee will oblege thy friend and 
well wishor {Regulator Papers 745-746). 

Who threatened whom? It is not clear, but Fanning did indeed 
write to Simon Dixon as requested by Piggatt in May 1768: 

I this day received the inclosed letter from Mr. William 
Piggatt and in answer thereto and in compliance with his 
request, I do, in Justice to the wrongfully blamed and 
accused, Hereby certify that I do not know neither do I 
believe, or did I ever hear that any information was ever 
made by the either of the said William or Jeremiah Piggatt 
on their solemn Information or otherwise against yourself 


Cane Creek 

Harmon Husbands or any other person concerning their 
being engaged in the late miserable unhappy disturbance in 
this County {Regulator Papers 745-746). 

However, Regulator advertisement number eight dated April 
30,1768 seems to show that Fanning had been misinformed. 

At a general meeting of regulators on April 30th it was laid 
before us an appointment of the officers by the means of the 
Revd Mr micklejohn to meet us the 1 1th day of May next 
to settle the several matters of difference between us and it 
was agreed on that we will send 1 2 men that we have chosen 
to meet on the said 1 1th day of May at Thomas Lindley's 
when we hope things will be set in a fair way for an amicable 
settlement and Mr Hamilton is appointed to contrive them 
a copy hereof and bring from under our [their] hands if they 
will meet us. 

The signers of this advertisement included three men from 
Cane Creek: Herman Husband, William Cox, and Simon Dixon 
(Regulator Papers 745-746). 

Governor William Tryon arrived in Hillsborough on July 
6,1768 to stabilize the situation there. Previously, Governor Tryon 
had given James Hunter, one of the Regulators, a letter in which he 
gave his assurances of just treatment for the grievances claimed by 
the Regulators. Governor Tryon hoped that this would placate the 
Regulators, but he soon found this was not to be, for they continued 
holding their meetings. The matters reached a climax when, on 
August 10, 1768, a report was made to the Governor that 

upward of 500 men had "rendezvoused" at Simon Dixons 
within twenty miles of the Town, with a firm resolution of 
coming into town the next day and to do mischief, and as 
a testimony of their intentions, they gave notice to some 


Turmoil in a Quaker Community 

families immediately to carry their wives and children out 
of the town (Regulator Papers 127). 

The mischief intended was to burn the town (Hillsborough) if 
their requests were not met. Fortunately, the insurgents were 
stopped when the leaders of the Regulators met with Tryon the next 
day. He assured them he would satisfy their demands. 

As Herman Husband's popularity increased with the Regula- 
tors and their sympathizers, he was growing in disfavor with 
Governor Tryon and his representatives. The differences between 
the two groups continued to intensify, finally culminating in the 
Battle of Alamance on May 16, 1771, in which Herman Husband 
took no part. On the eve of the battle, he fled northward in disguise, 
toward Maryland. 

There is a local story about Husband's journey north. As he 
traveled, dressed in homespun and riding an ancient swaybacked 
horse, he was approached by a group of soldiers who asked him if 
he had seen anything of a man riding fast along the trail. Husband 
assured them that he had not, and when they asked him where he 
was going, he replied that he was about his Father's business. The 
soldiers thought that he was a harmless old preacher and asked him 
to deliver a note for them in the next village. The note was addressed 
to Squire E , a Tory, and read: 

Husband has escaped. He got word of our approach and 
barely saved himself If he comes your way, have him taken. 
He must not escape. 

The note was signed, "Corning." Husband carried it to the squire, 
who, after reading it, thanked him and, in gratitude for this service 
to the Tories, wrote him a permit allowing him to travel. After 
thanking the squire, Husband continued on his journey northward 
and, as far as is known, never returned to the Cane Creek area 
(Griffin Notes). 


Cane Creek 

A week after the battle, on May 23, 1771, William Tryon 
ordered Captain Simon Bright "to go to Dixon's Mill, take 
possession of the same, and make a report to me of the quantity 
therein, and load 4 waggons [sic] with flour or corn whichever can 
be had. " This order was apparently due to Tryon's belief that Simon 
Dixon supported the Regulators. Additionally, in a separate requi- 
sition the governor levied the Cane Creek settlement for forty- 
eight barrels of flour; making a note of the fact that sixty-three had 
been delivered. This would have amounted to about sixteen wagons 
of supplies for Tryon's army. However, it is not clear whether or not 
the entire amount was actually delivered. When Captain Bright 
and his men left Dixon's Mill with the four "waggons" of flour, the 
regulators intercepted them, but a short time later Tryon's men 
were able to recapture the supplies. Upon hearing about the 
adventure, Governor Tryon ordered his men to take three addi- 
tional loads from Simon Dixon's Mill, "the owner having favored 
and assisted Rebels" (Regulator Papers). 

The extent of the involvement with the Regulators by members 
of Cane Creek Meeting is not clear. No doubt there were some who 
supported and assisted the Regulators from the beginning. As early 
as 1766, seven members of the meeting had been disowned for 
attending a disorderly mass meeting (Griffin "History" 21). Could 
this have been a protest meeting of the Regulators? It seems 
possible, for Governor Tryon had just levied taxes for his new 
palace in New Bern at that time. 

The matter of the flour was not over. The ever prudent Quakers 
petitioned the General Assembly of North Carolina on November 
7, 1772, for payment for the flour. 

From our monthly Meeting of the people called Quakers 
Held at Cain Creek in the County of Orange and Province 
of North Carolina the Seventh day of the Eleventh month 
. 1772 — 


Turmoil in a Quaker Community 

To Josiah Martin Esqr. Governor and Commander in 
Chief in and over said province — and to the Councell, 
Speaker and members of the house of Assembly. 

Do We as Humble dependents Earnestly Crave your 
Attention; and may these few lines seek Acceptance with 
You; that as we spread our Remonstrances before you; It 
may be your pleasure to have us redressed; for it is our 
Principle and known practice as a Society; to be subordi- 
nate and Peaceble under Government altho deviated from 
by some who make Profession as we do; for which the 
Severall Sheriffs can bear us record; that when their passing 
about in their respective Services was thought dangerous; 
that numbers of us Conveyed our money for our taxes; to 
the Severall Sheriffs Thereof; When come due and Payable, 
as being willing to exert our selves to the support of our 
Gracious King and Government; well knowing from whose 
clemency we as a people enjoy Great Priviledges — 

Now the moving instance which we have to lay before you 
is that whereas Governor William Tryon; requested us to 
furnish him with Six Waggon Load of Flower; to gether 
with Six Waggons and Teams; in the campaign against the 
Regulators; which request we complyed with in exspectation 
of being paid for the same; and whereas we understand; 
there hath been but a small part at the last sitting of 
Assembly; therefore we humbly intrest You; to take it into 
Consideration; and grant this our petition for it otherwise 
the Burten thereof is most likely to fall on few in the 
discharge and settlement thereof; which may prove the 
means of Rendering some of us incapable of the punctuall 
of our other respective debts, therefore we Earnestly crave; 
that you condesind to Administer to our Releof [relief] and 
we ask with Humble hearts; being in duty bound, we shall 


Cane Creek 

return due Acknowledgements. 

Signed in and behalf of the said 
Meeting (Regulator Papers) . 

The petition was signed by Chris Huffey, Jeremiah Piggot, and 
twenty-two others. The quaint parlance of another era cannot hide 
the calculated purpose of the petition. First, they reminded the 
Governor and the Assembly of their patriotism and loyalty to the 
Crown; then they asked for redress, and finally, almost threatened 
not to continue to pay their taxes. Clever as it may have been, the 
gambit did not work, for no money was forthcoming from the 

The price of six loads of flour (flower) would forever remain 
unpaid. However, it has added spice to the tales of the Regulators 
that have passed from one generation to the next. 


The Revolutionary War 

Some historians have called the Battle of 
Alamance the opening battle of the Revolu- 
tionary War. William Powell, in The War of 
the Revolution and the Battle of Alamance, says the 
real significance of the battle "lies in the fact that it 
stood as a grand object lesson to the people of the 
whole country. It set them to thinking of armed 
resistance and showed them how weak might be the 
British effort to surpass a full-scale revolution" 

No doubt many Quakers found themselves at 
odds with their neighbors over the rising tumult 
which would erupt in less than five years into full- 
fledged war caused by changes in attitudes toward 
the government. 

Cane Creek 

Just as the Minutes of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting contain 
no reference to the Regulator movement other than through 
disownments, there is no mention of the Revolutionary War. 
Instead, there is a record of a peaceable people trying to maintain 
an orderly and God-fearing way of life in the midst of what were 
turbulent times. No doubt they tried to live as best they could 
according to their Declaration of Faith: "We feel bound explicitly 
to avow our unshaken persuasion that all war is utterly incompat- 
ible with the plain precepts of our divine Lord and Law-giver" 
{Faith and Practice 28). 

To the Quakers, "taxation without representation" did not 
mean taxes levied by George III on tea or stamps, but rather the 
portion of their taxes that went to support the Church of England. 
In April 1767, according to the Minutes, Levi Branson and 
William Piggot brought a concern to monthly meeting, requesting 
the right "to inspect what part of our tax is for the support of the 
'hireling priest'." They were allowed to inspect the Vestries Book. 
In all probability, this book was at Hillsborough, the seat of the 
local government. If so, a journey of some twenty miles was 
necessary. Most men willing to travel that distance would have been 
concerned about a personal tax rather than a tax involving religion. 
Most men would have been appalled to find after such a journey 
that the tax amounted to one shilling and one farthing "as near as 
we can come at." How like the Quakers to be primarily concerned 
about religious matters in a society threatening to erupt at any time. 

Since the beginning of the war in 1776, most of the battles had 
been fought in the Northern Colonies. But by 1781, the war had 
reached the South. Lord Cornwallis, commander of the British 
forces in the South, had engaged General Nathanael Greene at 
Guilford Court House. On the second day after the battle, Cornwallis 
began his march toward Wilmington. His planned campsites 
would be near grist mills along the route. His army was traveling 


The Revolutionary War 

without supply wagons and it would be necessary to forage off the 
countryside. His first encampment was at Bell's Mill in Randolph 
County. From there he intended to go to Ramsey's Mill, near 
Moncure in Chatham County. However, for some reason known 
only to Cornwallis, he did not take the most direct route to 
Ramsey's. He, instead, turned aside and stopped at Simon Dixon's 
Mill (Dixon 1). 

The British made camp north of the mill in a grain field. 
Cornwallis chose for his headquarters Simon Dixon's stone house 
which stood quite nearby. The Dixon family was told to leave and 
not come back until the army had moved on. 

Simon Dixon had been warned of the approach of the British 
soldiers. He had chosen to leave the area and stay with a friend 
named Mebane near the Hawfields community. Simon was fearful 
that his reputed involvement with the Regulator movement might 
endanger his life at the hands of the British. 

The soldiers stacked their guns in two long rows between the 
mill and the Dixon house. The hillside was dotted with camp fires 
as the men rested. The smell of roasting meat filled the air. 
According to private records, the soldiers killed 250 sheep, fifty 
cows, and scoured the neighborhood for bee hives until they had 
about eighty. The cattle were butchered near the meetinghouse. 
The benches, which were single board seats with no backs, were 
carried into the yard and used as "butcher tables." The benches 
continued to be used in the meetinghouse, still bearing axe marks 
and blood stains until a fire in 1879 destroyed them. 

Cornwallis spent most of his time resting in a large armchair by 
the fire inside the house. Perhaps he was reliving the battle, which 
to his military mind had been a loss. Perhaps he was planning 
strategy as he contemplated the fire. Some of the soldiers tried to use 
the mill but found the grinding stones had been jammed together. 
Simon Dixon had thwarted the Tories' attempts to use his mill and 


Cane Creek 

to find his gold. After a week of rest, the army left the community 
and continued on its way to Wilmington. 

Destruction and devastation could be seen throughout the 
community, but some things had not changed. The meetinghouse 
still stood, even though its benches bore the butcher's axe marks. 
The Dixon mill and home were still there, and the mill would 
continue to serve the community for many years. The rock wall, 
reminiscent of a Pennsylvania heritage, still marked the road to the 
meetinghouse. The marks and ravages left by the British army 
would soon pass away, but the memory of their visit would remain. 
A more permanent reminder of their stay in the community was the 
newly made graves for six British soldiers who died during the 
encampment and were buried in the cemetery. Their names, 
however, have long been forgotten. 

Dixon s Mill at Snow Camp 

The Revolutionary War 

From time to time, relics from that long ago time surface and 
the residents of the community are reminded quite vividly of their 
ancestors' brush with history. Around 1920, some young boys 
found a cannon ball in the rock wall while walking along the top of 
it — a favorite pastime in years gone by. Also in the 1920s, 
gravediggers unearthed some mini-balls in the cemetery. No one 
will ever know how these and other artifacts came to be where they 
were found. However, discoveries such as these revive the folklore 
that perhaps Cornwallis had buried cannon as well as some of his 
soldiers in the meetinghouse cemetery. 

It seems that, according to British war records, Cornwallis 
captured two of Nathanael Greene's cannon. Tradition says that 
the English pulled them as far as Cane Creek. However, they slowed 
the army and became a liability. Eyewitnesses told of seeing the 
cannon when the British arrived, but they did not see them when 
the British left. This tale has been passed from generation to 
generation. Burial of the cannon seemed a likely solution that 
would prevent recapture. Some believe that the cannon were 
submerged in the Cane Creek east of Dixon's Mill. Perhaps, some 
time in the future, someone will discover their hiding place if there 
is one. 

Also, folklore indicates that Cornwallis gave the settlement its 
name of Snow Camp, providing a second explanation for this 
name. Supposedly, snow fell while the British army was encamped 
at Cane Creek. However, as the fourth week in March is rather late 
for snow in this area, it seems unlikely that this happened. 

The Dixon family returned to their home shortly after the 
departure of their "guests." In a few days, Simon was taken ill with 
some kind of camp fever and died. Local tradition suggests that 
Simon Dixon was tortured by Cornwallis and his men. While this 
cannot be fully substantiated, it is true that Dixon died shortly 


Cane Creek 

The long-range effects of the Revolutionary War continued 
into the nineteenth century. Some families chose to migrate rather 
than face the difficulties of the postwar era. Thus, a pattern was 
established which would continue for the next fifty years. 

Prior to the war some Friends had moved south to be united 
with Quaker settlements in South Carolina: Bush River, Cane 
Creek, Fredricksburg (later Wateree), and Wrightsborough in 
Georgia (Griffin "History" 25). However, by the late 1700s the 
southern settlements did not seem as attractive as they once had 
been. After the Revolutionary War was over, land in eastern 
Tennessee became available to settlers. Grants of land there were 
given to those who applied in return for services they had rendered 
in the cause for independence. While Friends did not actually 
participate in the war, many joined their friends and neighbors in 
the westward migration. Active meetings were begun in the new 
settlements: Lost Creek, Newberry, Friendsville, and New Hope. 
Between 1795 and 1 804, twelve certificates to Lost Creek and New 
Hope were granted (Weeks 265). 

Then in the early 1800s, the lure of the West began to attract 
families. The land in the Carolinas was becoming poorer each year 
and little was known about soil improvement. Land in the West was 
rich and cheap. In 1 804 the first parties went to Ohio. In that year, 
the Minutes indicate five certificates of removal to Miami, Ohio. 
The total number of families who migrated to Ohio between the 
years 1801 and 1810 was forty-three (Weeks 269). 



Query six was read from the Discipline in 
a session of Cane Creek Monthly Meet- 
ing First month 1784: 

Are Friends clear of importing, purchasing, 
disposing of or holding mankind as slave, 
and do they use those well who are under 
their care, through management or other- 
wise endeavoring to encourage them in a 
virtuous life? 

The scourge of slavery spread across the land as 
the slave trade flourished. Plantation owners and 
farmers alike recognized the economic advantage 
that slave labor provided. However, there were 

Cane Creek 

those who opposed the enslavement of human beings, believing 
instead that slavery did not correspond with the teachings of Jesus 
Christ. John Woolman, often referred to as the "Quaker Con- 
science," undertook the enlightenment of his fellow Quakers 
regarding the evils of slavery. He visited the Carolinas for the 
second time in 1757. During this visit he wrote Friends at New 
Garden and Cane Creek: 

And now dear friends and brethren as you are improving a 
wilderness, and may be numbered amongst the first plant- 
ers in one part of the province, I Beseech you wisely to 
consider the force of your examples, and think how much 
your successors may be thereby affected. It is a help in a 
country, yea, a great favor, when customs first settled are 
agreeable to sound wisdom (Journal 65). 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting expressed grave concern over 
the practice of its members' holding slaves as property. Near the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, the yearly meeting itself 
accepted the ownership of slaves and placed them under its care. 
This practice ensured that these persons who would have had no 
legal status as freed men would be treated fairly. They would be paid 
wages for their labor and would not be separated from their 
families. These people came to be known as Quaker Free Negroes. 

An extract from a yearly meeting epistle was read in the 
monthly meeting for business Eleventh month 1800. Cane Creek 
was asked to appoint a committee to "unite with a Quarterly 
Meeting Committee in inspecting into the circumstances of the 
black people amongst Friends and in doing what may appear 
expedient in their power for the enlargement of them and also in 
labouring with instruction and usage of those blacks that are under 
their care." No committee names are recorded, so it not clear if 
Cane Creek Meeting complied with the request. 



In 1 809 the yearly meeting asked for "the general mind of how 
to act in the future in the cases of holding slaves." This time Cane 
Creek replied (Fourth month 1 8 1 0) : "It is agreed that the authority 
of the agents appointed by the yearly meeting be suspended or 
entirely cease, and that no more people of color be received in that 
way by the yearly meeting." 

There were few slave owners, Quaker or otherwise, in the Snow 
Camp area. The farms were small, the families usually large, and 
owning slaves was not economically feasible. These practicalities 
only bolstered the people's sense of injustice against the practice of 
owning slaves. 

A few Friends did, however, have slaves. When this occurred, 
the meeting took action. According to the Minutes of November 
1798, Marshall and David Vestal were asked to visit a father and son 
who were involved in "purchasing and holding negroes." They 
were "to convince their minds of the inconsistence of such con- 
duct." Readers of this directive can only wonder if the meeting 
thought it would be easier to convince minds rather than persuade 
consciences. One woman was disowned for holding and selling 
slaves in 1846. 

Cane Creek Meeting may have been located in a rather remote 
area, removed from much of the political maneuvering of that era. 
They were not, however, removed from the seriousness of the 
slavery issue. In June 1 823, the monthly meeting agreed to assist in 
removing "people of color" to Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois. A year 
later, in July 1 824, they considered sending people of color to Haiti 
or wherever they chose to go. The meeting would help defray the 
cost of such endeavors. 

The remoteness of Cane Creek served its members well in their 
decision to help the slaves. A station of the Underground Railroad 
was located one and one-half miles south of the meetinghouse. The 


Cane Creek 

Underground Railroad was a means of helping slaves escape from 
their masters and flee North to freedom. Many Quakers in North 
Carolina were involved in this work. The Underground Railroad 
was a network of safe houses, called stations, across the state. The 
stations were located approximately one day's journey apart. Slaves 
who were escaping from their owners were guided from station to 
station, where they were hidden and cared for by the local citizens 
who defied the law and risked stiff penalties if caught. The paths 
between stations were marked with carefully hidden signs. For 
example, nails would be driven on a tree in a certain pattern 
indicating which fork of the trail should be taken. Another pattern 
might indicate that the farms close by had dogs. 

At the station near Cane Creek, the slaves were housed in the 
home of William Kirkman. He had a two-story log house, the 
upstairs of which was large enough for the slaves to use as a dining 
room and also a sleeping room when there was no immediate threat 
from their pursuers. The Kirkmans were assisted by members of 
Cane Creek and possibly other churches in the area with donations 
of food, bedding, clothing, and other items the slaves might need. 
Since the slaves had nothing except their clothing with them, these 
supplies had to be replenished each time the station was used. 
During the day the slaves hid in a large hollow log located some 
distance from the house. Only when it was dark and deemed to be 
safe would they dare venture into the house to eat and rest. The 
slaves were tutored in ways to survive as they made their way to 
freedom in the North. Something as simple as gathering tomatoes 
from a farmhouse garden patch might give their hunters a clue 
about their presence. They were told never to pick all the tomatoes 
from one vine but rather to pick one tomato from several vines 
creating a less noticeable loss (Finley Coble Interview). 

The Kirkman property is today part of the farm of Finley and 
Georgia Coble. Nothing remains of the house. Only a large rock in 



front of their barn bears silent testimony to the desperate men and 
women who passed by it on their way to freedom and also to the 
courageous Quaker men and women who helped them. 

In the decade just prior to the Civil War, some members of 
Cane Creek Meeting became involved in a more public antislavery 
movement. They learned that some of their neighbors to the south 
on the edge of Chatham County had been left without a church 
home when their denomination, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
had split over the slavery issue. The split led to the formation of a 
new denomination, the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of 
America. When the news of this new denomination reached the 
Cane Creek community, it seemed to be the perfect vehicle for the 
families without a church and their sympathetic neighbors in Cane 
Creek to exercise their antislavery beliefs. Consequently, both 
groups collaborated on a request to the Wesleyan organization for 
a preacher. The arrival of the Rev. Adam Crooks in October 1 847, 
initiated an evangelistic and church organizing ministry which 
resulted in the construction of a new church in the Cane Creek 

The building for this new church was built on land deeded to 
the trustees by Simon Dixon, a descendant of the early settler by 
that name. The trustees were George Councilman, Micajah 
McPherson, and Alfred Vestal. The original deed signed by Simon 
Dixon was witnessed by Hugh Dixon and Margaret Williams. 
William Thompson and his wife were also strong supporters of the 
new ministry in the area. The church was named Freedom's Hill 
(Nicholson 1). 

This name seems appropriate since the building stood only a 
few yards from the Kirkman house. Even though the church had 
strong support from its Quaker neighbors, there were others in the 
area who did not like its antislavery stand and took strong measures 
to negate its appeal. Bullet holes in the siding of the building are 


Cane Creek 

Freedom's Hill Wesley an Methodist Church, built 1848 

Interior of Freedom 's Hill Church 

evidence of the vehement emotions of the times. On several 
occasions, protesters fired into the building in an attempt to stop 
the worship services that were going on. 

Over the years the church fell into disrepair as members died or 
moved away and interest waned. Finally, in the 1950s, the old 



building was moved to the Wesleyan Campground near Colfax, 
North Carolina. 

There is no doubt that Cane Creek Meeting stood firmly 
against slavery. Surely during First day worship, voices spoke 
against the evil practice as "the Spirit gave them liberty to do so." 


The Civil War 

True to Quaker tradition, very little was 
written about the Civil War in the Min- 
utes of Cane Creek Meeting. Neverthe- 
less, try as they would, their lives could not have 
escaped the events of the 1 860s. Once again young 
men of the meeting would have to decide if they 
should join the army or remain true to their Quaker 
Peace Testimony. Their decision may have been 
made more difficult because there was a training 
camp at Company Shops, near Burlington, just a 
few miles away. Even though they might have 
known about the enlistment of friends and neigh- 
bors, it is unlikely they felt the pressure to enlist that 
their ancestors had felt during the Revolutionary 

The Civil War 

War. This war was different from the others in at least one respect. 
To some it had seemed a noble cause to fight for independence in 
1776, but there would be nothing noble in fighting to preserve a 
culture that depended on slavery for its existence. 

Alamance County saw little of the war itself. No major battles 
were fought nearby. The only soldiers to be seen were an occasional 
army patrol riding through looking for deserters, or sometimes the 
quartermasters' wagons looking for supplies. Other times it would 
be the conscription wagons looking for draftees and recruits. 

The writer remembers her father telling the story of his grand- 
father, Isaac Holt Thompson, as it was told to him by his grand- 
mother, Mary Ann Thompson. She had stood in the middle of the 
road surrounded by her small children and watched as the conscrip- 
tion wagon carried her husband to war. She remembered his face 
peering out of the back of the wagon as it carried him out of sight 
down the dusty road. She and the children had stood and watched 
the empty road long after the wagon had disappeared as if in so 
doing they could will it to come back. Mary Ann and the children 
would never see him again; he died on a Pennsylvania battlefield. 
Similar stories would be repeated over and over throughout the 

The hardships suffered by the rest of the population were so 
intense and so devastating that Cane Creek Quakers could not have 
escaped them. While the violence of war did not reach the country- 
side around Cane Creek, violence of another kind erupted at the 
Freedom's Hill Church which, as previously stated, was located 
nearby. Confederate sympathizers aroused by the abolitionist stand 
of the church abducted Micajah McPherson, a leader and trustee of 
the Freedom's Hill Church, from his home and attempted to hang 
him. His wife and his grandson, Monroe Roach, watched as his 
abductors put a noose around his neck, tied him to a small dogwood 
tree and pushed him over a cliff. When they believed him to be 


Cane Creek 

Micajah McPherson, a layman with convictions 

dead, they cut him down and left him for dead. One account says 
his abductors made the remark as they removed the noose that they 
had another hanging to attend and needed the noose. Micajah 
McPherson cheated his abductors; he was still alive and remained 
so for some thirty years after the incident (Haines 3). 

At a meeting held Ninth month 1863, a letter was read in 
monthly meeting from a called Meeting for Sufferings at Spring- 
field Meeting in High Point. The letter protested the demands of 
the Confederate Government that one-tenth of the land's produce 
should be given to the government. It was the judgment of the 
Meeting for Sufferings that the tithe not be paid. It was felt that 
such payments and gifts only aided and prolonged the war. Reticent 
as ever, the clerk of Cane Creek Meeting did not record what 
decision, if any, was made by the monthly meeting. 


The Civil War 

Earlier in February of the same year, 1863, Milton Woody 
reported to the monthly meeting that he had "availed himself of the 
Exemption Act of The Confederate Congress. " He offered to resign 
as clerk of the meeting, but his resignation was not accepted. 
Woody explained his actions in a letter to the monthly meeting. He 
was subject to conscription and had been forcibly taken into the 
Confederate Army. A uniform and equipment was given to him but 
he refused to accept them. He saw firsthand the "evils of the army." 
Woody felt he had no other choice but to pay the five-hundred 
dollar exemption fee and return home. This must have been, to 
him, the lesser of two evils. 

Another man decided to pay the five hundred dollars for a 
replacement to take his place in the army. Ironically, the man who 
went into the army in his place was a member of Cane Creek but 
was not disowned by the meeting for joining the army. However, 
the man who paid him was disowned. 

The migration to the West that had begun following the 
Revolutionary War had continued during the pre-Civil War 
period. Friends found the Indiana Territory very attractive. Be- 
tween 1811 and 1 820 thirty-one families migrated to Indiana. The 
next decade produced the most migration. Forty-seven certificates 
of removal were recorded during that time period. From 1831 to 
1840, there were twenty-three (Weeks 269). 

Certainly, one of the contributing factors to the large number 
of migrations during this period was the slavery issue. Friends who 
did not own slaves found it hard to compete economically with 
farmers who did. Also, there was a sense of impending crisis over the 
matter. As the war clouds had appeared on the horizon, several 
young men had made their way to Ohio or to Indiana to escape 
recruitment into the army. 

The list of certificates of removal is quite long. Familiar names 
found on the list are Edwards, Hobson, Stout, Doan, Cox, Carter, 


Cane Creek 

Harvey, Newlin, Hadley, Dixon, Moon, Marshall, Allen, Hackett, 
Wheeler, Hinshaw, Wells, and Pike. 

The numbers alone are staggering, especially when one realizes 
that the numbers are for heads of families only. It is truly an 
understatement that the membership of Cane Creek Meeting was 
greatly depleted. Fortunately enough people remained for Cane 
Creek Meeting to continue. When peace was once again estab- 
lished, the Quakers began picking up the pieces of their lives and 
helping others do likewise. 


Meetings for Worship 
and Business 

The Quaker meeting for worship was, and 
still is, a vital part of the Quaker way of life. 
Before a meetinghouse could be built, 
early settlers held their worship services in their 
homes. Sometimes only the family would be present. 
At other times there would be two or three families 
gathered together. In either situation, the service 
would be a time of waiting, listening, and praying. 
The term "centering down" was used to explain the 
preliminary period of settling into the worship 
experience — a time when children were hushed, 
eyes were closed, and heads were bowed. In this way 
all the distractions which might come from the 
physical surroundings were minimized as much as 

Cane Creek 

At first there were no preachers or pastors as we have today. 
Instead there were "recorded ministers," which is a Quaker term 
designating those men and women who were recognized as having 
a "gift of ministry." They were the leaders of the meeting. One of 
their responsibilities was to be in charge of the worship services. As 
such they were said "to sit at the head of the meeting." During the 
worship service they would sit on the facing bench at the front of 
the meeting. 

There were two worship services held each week: one on First 
day (Sunday) and the other on Fifth day (Thursday). Picture the 
scene: the men are on one side of the meeting room and the women 
on the other. At the front on the facing bench are the elders for this 
particular meeting. There is silence. After a while some one might 
rise and speak about something which he feels "has been laid on his 
heart." There might be others to rise and speak. Sometimes there 
would be no spoken word for the entire time. When those at the 
head of the meeting felt that the time had come to close the worship 
service, they would shake hands with each other. The other 
worshipers would shake hands also and the meeting was over. 

It was the custom for both men and women to wear their hats 
and bonnets during the service. When a woman wished to speak in 
the meeting she would remove her bonnet, lay it on the lap of the 
woman sitting next to her, then rise and speak. The men removed 
their black broad-brimmed hats also before speaking. All men 
removed their hats during spoken prayer (Stuart 2). 

Attendance at the weekly worship services was expected of all 
members. Most of the time this obligation was accepted willingly. 
The monthly meeting would inquire and deal with anyone who 
missed the services without a good reason to do so. 

It is rather odd to think that regular worship service attendance 
could be amusing, but it certainly was on at least one occasion. 
Thomas Dixon was a faithful lifelong member of Cane Creek. He 


Meetings for Worship and Business 

was a recorded minister and leader and as such often sat at the head 
of the meeting. One time Thomas Dixon was sick and could not 
attend the Fifth day service. When the time came to leave for the 
service the family dog began to bark in the front yard. When it 
became apparent to the dog that the family was not going to be 
leaving the farm on that particular afternoon, the dog ran to the 
meetinghouse, walked down the aisle to the bench where Thomas 
Dixon usually sat, and lay down under the bench. The dog lay 
quietly for about an hour, then got up, walked out and went home. 

The practice of speaking during the worship service has caused 
some rather amusing things to happen, also. One afternoon during 
the Fifth day services, there were a number of people who spoke on 
a variety of subjects. A little boy sat quietly listening as one after 
another rose to speak. Finally, he decided that it was his turn. He 
stood, removed his hat and said, "When I came by the mill, the big 
wheel was going round and round." 

The practice of waiting quietly and allowing time for Friends 
to share in the meeting has not always been understood by visitors. 
One young man accompanied his girl friend to meeting. As one 
person after another spoke during the open worship he became 
more and more agitated. As it happened the people who were 
speaking in the meeting seemed to him to be rising in some pattern 
which had begun with a person near the front and moved nearer 
and nearer the back of the meeting room. The young man became 
terrified when it appeared to him that he was going to be next in line 
to speak. He was just about ready to bolt for the door when the 
meeting was concluded. 

Today, the worship services at Cane Creek are very different 
from the early meetings for worship. However, Friends continue to 
worship together and share as the Lord leads them. Periods of silent 
meditation and open worship remain important elements of each 


Cane Creek 

Cane Creek members, ca. 1947. J. Waldo Woody, pastor. 

While music is an integral part of worship at Cane Creek 
Meeting today, early Friends did not approve of singing or of the 
use of musical instruments, either in worship services or in the 
home. As late as 1830, one member was disowned at Cane Creek 
for attending a singing school in the community. 

Singing schools were quite the rage in the latter part of the 


Meetings for Worship and Business 

1 800s and into the first quarter of the twentieth century. Partici- 
pants were taught to read the music, not by the place of the note on 
space or line of the staff but by the shape of the notes. A certain 
shape, such as a diamond, a triangle, a square, or a rectangle, stood 
for a certain note and by memorizing the shapes, one could be 
taught to sound the note needed for the song. Churches within the 
community banded together to hire the teacher for the school 
which usually lasted a week or possibly two. Such schools were well 
attended for not only did they offer music instruction, they also 
provided a social occasion for visiting neighbors. 

It is not known when congregational singing began or when an 
organized choir was begun at Cane Creek. The first musical 
instrument used was a small folding organ. It was kept at the home 
of Eula and Florence Dixon just across the road from the meeting- 
house. On First day someone would bring it to the meetinghouse 
where it was played at the beginning and the closing of Sunday 
School. During the worship service it was folded and stored under 
a bench. The older members of the meeting were quite opposed to 
the use of the organ. It must have taken some time for its use to 
become generally accepted (Stuart 4). 

In 1915 Hayes Thompson gave the first large reed organ to the 
meeting. In 1920 Callie Green collected donations for a piano 
(Griffin Notes). The reed organ was destroyed in the fire of 1942 
and was not replaced. Only piano music was used until the early 
1950s when an electric organ was purchased. 

Unlike Friends of long ago who protested the use of music in 
the meeting, present day Friends at Cane Creek would protest if 
there were no music on Sunday mornings during worship. Music 
has become an important and vital part of the life of the meeting. 

So central was worship in the life of early Friends that necessary 
business items were handled in a meeting for worship in which 


Cane Creek 

business was transacted. The primary objective was to ascertain that 
which was right and to discern God's will. No votes were taken, for 
Friends did not feel that this was in accord with their seeking- 
worship process. 

The presiding clerk's job then as now was to determine the 
"mind of the meeting." Should the clerk determine there was not 
unity and agreement among members, the matter under consider- 
ation would be postponed until another time. It might be necessary 
for the clerk to make several postponements. Decisions made in this 
manner negated the possibility of much dissension and hard 
feelings between members, thus freeing them to live a more 
purposeful life. 

The monthly meeting Minutes for the early years were quite 
sparse. Quite often it was recorded that various reports were made, 
with no indication of the contents. The quarterly meeting required 
a written answer to queries concerning the spiritual life of the 

Jesse Thompson, trustee, Sunday school superintendent and teacher, 
and his wife, Annie Andrews Thompson. 


Meetings for Worship and Business 

meeting. The monthly meeting did not neglect this responsibility; 
neither did they record their answers. One is left wondering. 
Fortunately, statistical reports were recorded from time to time. 

A comparison of the report for 1881 with that of 1981, one 
hundred years later, may prove interesting; note the differences. 
Our present day report seems to be largely concerned with finances, 
while no mention was made of money in 1881. (See Appendix.) 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting was organized according to the 
tradition of Friends. There were separate business meetings for men 
and women. The early meetinghouses were designed for this 
purpose. A long row of shutters ran the length of the meeting room 
and these could be opened during worship but closed for the 
business sessions. Business matters originating in either the men's 
or women's side were usually not settled until both meetings were 

The practice of holding two business meetings was discontin- 
ued at Cane Creek in 1 877. According to the Minutes, the last such 
meeting was held Twelfth month 1877. This predated the yearly 
meeting's discontinuation of separate meetings by some twenty 

For more than a hundred years, marriages among Friends were 
under the care of the monthly meeting. The couple would state 
their intentions and ask for the approval of the meeting. A clearness 
committee would be appointed to investigate the situation. If no 
hindrances were found and the couple seemed to be "clear" in every 
way, the committee would so inform the monthly meeting and the 
wedding would proceed. However, the monthly meeting selected 
the date and time for the marriage and appointed a committee to 
attend the wedding to see that it was conducted in a proper and 
"seemly" manner. One might think this would be the end of the 
monthly meeting's involvement but not so, for there was one more 
committee report to be made. The monthly meeting expected a 


Cane Creek 

report about the wedding and any festivities after the ceremony. 
Scattered throughout the Cane Creek Minutes, one can read where 
a marriage was conducted in a seemly fashion or in other cases, there 
was evidence of unseemly and frivolous entertainment. 

The ceremony itself would be in an appointed meeting for 
worship. At the appropriate time, usually after a period of open 
worship, the couple stood and spoke their vows to each other, with 
no minister officiating. The elders of the meeting were in charge. 
A rather lengthy certificate was signed by the groom and bride first, 
and then by those present and the marriage would be recorded in 
the Minutes of the meeting. 

Ed and Lorraine Griffin were the last couple to be married after 
the manner of Friends at Cane Creek Meeting. Their marriage 
occurred on June 28, 1916 (Stuart 4). 

One of the more interesting and unusual committees that has 
been active in the life of the monthly meeting dates from the first 
decade of the 1 900s. It was the Transportation and Entertainment 
Committee. Then, as now, Cane Creek was some distance from the 
train station. The job of this committee was to meet the trains and 
transport visitors to and from the meeting. Also, they were to see 
that places were provided for their hospitality while in the 
community. The committee, as listed in the Minutes of June 
1909, consisted of Hayes Thompson, Lyndon Stuart, Dougan 
Thompson, Flora Stout, Sarah Pickett, Cicero Stuart, Harrison 
Thompson, and Mary J. Coble. Unfortunately, there is no 
record of the method of transportation. Most likely, it would 
have been by horse and buggy. Pity the poor travelers who, after a 
long and tiring train trip, would be subjected to at least a two-hour 
buggy ride before arriving at their destination. 

A good example of the necessity for a transportation committee 
may be seen in the following diary account of the travels of Mary 


Meetings for Worship and Business 


Cane Creek women, early 1900s. Left to right: Ella Thompson, Sybil 
Thompson, Martha Thompson, Eliza Johnson, and Mary Coble. 

C. Woody, a recorded Friends minister, who was traveling for the 
Evangelism and Church Extension Committee of the yearly meet- 
ing in February 1 900. Mary Edith Hinshaw recounts the trip in her 
book, Pioneers in Quaker Education-. 

Friday, February 9: Off for Liberty (on the Train) . Reached 
Cane Creek Quarterly Meeting at 4. Glorious meeting of 
ministry and oversight. Didn't close until 5 p.m. 


Cane Creek 

Saturday: Rain, sleet. Meeting at 1 1 . Good Crowd — good 
meeting — held until 3:30. Business passed so easily — 
scarcely knew it. Discipline. Close preaching. Many quit 

Sunday, 11: Sleet. Icicles everywhere., every limb fringed. 
Sunday School, Glorious meeting — 2 sessions in all. 

The account further states that "Mary stayed at Zeno Dixon's 
home next door to Cane Creek Meetinghouse. She reported a 
chilly buggy ride to Nathaniel Woody's at Saxapahaw on 
Sunday night (9 miles in l ] n hours. Quick Time)" (85). 

One cannot read of such an endeavor without renewed admi- 
ration and appreciation for the dedication of those whose legacy we 
enjoy today. 


The Spoken Ministry 

Quakers are well known for their quietness 
and for the silences in their worship 
services. Quakers also believe that the 
spoken or vocal ministry is equally important and 
vital to the meeting. Friends have long recognized 
that some members were able to minister to others 
through the spoken word. Members of the meeting 
who seemed to exercise this particular talent were 
recognized by the meeting as "having a gift of 
ministry." This talent would be duly noted in the 
Minutes of the meeting. The individual would 
then be considered a "recorded minister in the 
Society of Friends." In more recent years it has 
become necessary to have the quarterly meeting 
and the yearly meeting give approval to the record- 
ing process. 

Cane Creek 

Abigail Pike, Joseph Cloud, 
and Hannah Cloud were among 
the first persons to be recorded 
as ministers at Cane Creek. 
Through the years others also 
have been recorded. The list in- 
cludes Harrison Allen, Jasper 
Thompson, Thomas Dixon, 
Maurice Stuart, Walter Allen, 
Milo Dixon, Zeno Dixon, Roxie 
Dixon White, York Teague, 
Blake Wright, Luther Mc- 
Pherson, Paula Teague, and 
Brian Wilson. 

Charity Wright Cook, Eliza 
Armstrong Cox, William 
Dixon, Amy Thompson, and 
Lindley Moore were also re- 
corded ministers. Although their 
ministries were in other states, 
their roots were in the Cane 
Creek Meeting. 

The idea of a pastoral min- 
istry began in the late 1800s. 
During this period, Thomas C. Hodgin held a revival at Cane 
Creek. He emphasized the need for pastoral service, and Friends' 
attitudes began to change. Thomas Hodgin continued to preach 
once or twice a month on First day for some time. It began to seem 
prudent for the meeting to consider some type of pastoral arrange- 
ments (Griffin "History" 40). 

Pastoral Committee records indicate that the pastoral ministry 
began at Cane Creek in 1909 with Miles and Georgia Reece as 


York Teague, resident pastor 
and worker. 

The Spoken Ministry 

ministers. They served until 1914. Rufus Pegg, Thomas Dixon, 
and Margaret Hackney were the ministers until Oscar and Belle 
Cox began their ministry in 1918 (Griffin "History" 41). 

Local members who gave their services to the meeting were 
Milo Dixon, Maurice Stuart, and Thomas Dixon. Robert H. 
Melvin and Thomas Hendricks were part-time workers. Georgia 
Reece and Virgil Pike 
taught at Sylvan School 
and preached at Cane 
Creek on Sunday. There 
was no hired minister 
until 1 9 1 8. At that time 
Oscar Cox and Edward 
Harris were employed 
to preach once each 
month for $50 a year. 

In 1926 Walter 
Allen, a former mem- 
ber, returned from Kan- 
sas and served as pastor 
until his death in 1929. 
Elbert Newlin, then a 
student at Guilford Col- 
lege, took his place. 

The practice of hav- 
ing a part-time minister 
continued until 1 94 1 , at 
which time Elbert 
Newlin returned to Cane Lewis and Pearl McFar i and> pastors at 
Creek Meeting to be- Cane Creek, 1932-36; superintendent of 
come the first full— time evangelism in North Carolina. Yearly 
pastor. He was paid $ 1 00 Meeting, 1915-30. 

Cane Creek 

a month, plus $13.50 a month for house rent. 

The meeting soon recognized the fact that a full-time pastor 
and his family required a parsonage. Prior to this time, the ministers 
had lived in rented houses in the community. In March 1945, a 
fund to build a home for the minister and his family was started. 
Plans for construction were given a boost with the gift of one acre 
of land from Pearl Griffin. The land located on the Snow Camp- 
Siler City Road, near Thompson's Garage, proved to be a satisfac- 
tory building site. The modern, five-room, brick home was com- 
pleted in 1 947. The first ministers to live in the new parsonage were 
J. Waldo and Lutie Woody. The upstairs part of the house was 
finished in the early 1950s. This house would be home to all the 
ministers through 1990. 

In the early summer of 1 990, a new parsonage was constructed 
on an acre of land which had been donated to the meeting by David 

Elbert and Inez Newlin, first full-time 
pastors at Cane Creek, 1941—45. 


The Spoken Ministry 

/. Waldo and Lutie Woody, pastors at Cane Creek, 1945—49. 

Carter in memory of his mother, Kathryn Dixon Carter, wife of 
Norman Carter, a Friends minister. As in the past, this building 
was debt-free when the pastor, Dale Matthews, and his family 
moved in. 

The pastoral ministers who have served Cane Creek Meeting 
are listed in the Appendix. 


Religious Instruction 

Friends believe that "In the providence of 
God, man has been entrusted with the re- 
sponsibility of participating in his own cre- 
ation. This is [sic] , he has been given the capacity to 
grow, to become. He can assist in or thwart this 
mental and spiritual development" ( What Do Friends 
Believe? 1 5). Therefore, religious instruction was an 
important part of the training of youth. It was 
considered the responsibility of the meeting as well 
as of the home. 

The monthly meeting often reminded parents 
of their responsibility for their children. Surveys 
were conducted by the monthly meeting to ascer- 
tain the number who held devotions in the home. 
Those who did not were encouraged to do so. 

Religious Instruction 

Surveys also were made to find how many did not have Bibles in 
their homes. In 1833, it was reported that there were nine families 
without a Bible. 

In 1848, twenty-seven Bibles were received from the Philadel- 
phia Meeting and distributed to those who needed them. In 
February 1 852, a committee of John Dixon and Miles Hobson gave 
this report of Bibles sold: "7 large $1.75 each; 8 small $.75 each; 1 
damaged $.50; 2 were given to those who did not have copies; 7 
large testaments sold at $.30 each (gave away one); 8 small leather 
bound at 1272 cents; 9 small muslin bound at 10 cents." 

Friends have always felt the First Day Schools were of primary 
importance. Cane Creek was no exception. A committee was 
appointed to consider the subject of First Day Schools Third 
month 1752. What action resulted from this is not known. 
Apparently, First Day Schools were held for short periods of time 
throughout the first century of Cane Creek's existence. For ex- 
ample, in the Minutes of January 1858, it was recorded that "notice 
was given that First Day Scripture Schools were to be held through- 
out the summer in each of the Preparative Meetings." 

One of the first acts of business following the close of the Civil 
War was the appointment of J. Milton Woody, Obed Marshburn, 
Alfred Cox, Calvin Thompson, W. T. Pickett, Caleb Dixon, and 
Bob Allen in April 1865, to use their "endeavors" to have a First 
Day School opened and carried on in each of the Preparative 
Meetings. Four months later in April 1865, Obed Marshburn 
reported that two schools had been held and one was still in 
operation. The first had fifty-four in attendance, with twenty-four 
members and thirty non-members. The second school had forty- 
eight pupils, thirty-two of whom were members. 

A booklet, The Little Visitor, published by Sylvan Academy in 
1868, states, "The Sabbath School at Cane Creek Church opened 


Cane Creek 

for the present year on Sunday 18th of October" (Sylvanian 9). 

In March 1869, the monthly meeting appointed a commit- 
tee to establish First Day Schools. Bible classes and other means 
of scriptural instruction were to be used. In October of that same 
year, the record indicates that the matter had been given some 
attention, for a school had operated in the Preparative Meetings 
through September. 

Sabbath Schools or First Day Schools have been held with 
regularity since the latter part of the 1800s. From the Cane Creek 
Minutes for March 1880, one reads that the Cane Creek Sabbath 
School opened in the new house for the first time. William Long 
gave two medals to be awarded twelve months "hence" for the best 
behaved boy and girl in the Sabbath School. 

Bible verses were taught to each class and then repeated to the 
congregation when the classes assembled in the meeting room for 
the closing exercises. One little girl did a little paraphrasing when 
she stood and repeated as her verse, "Thou shall not steal a house." 

For many years Ruth M. Hinshaw gave illustrated blackboard 
lessons. She was a talented artist and made her subjects come "alive" 
as she illustrated the lesson for the day. 

There have been many dedicated teachers in the First Day 
Schools, later called Sunday Schools, at Cane Creek. The beginners 
class was taught by three generations of the same family. Lydia 
Dixon began the tradition, to be followed by her daughter, Clara 
Pike, who was succeeded by her daughter, Anna Lois Dixon. 

One of Anna Lois's favorite stories about her teaching experi- 
ence involves a very rowdy youngster and the power of prayer. Anna 
Lois had a lot of trouble managing one little fellow. He would not 
sit still and climbed and jumped about the classroom every Sunday. 
Despite all her efforts, she had not been very successful in calming 
him. One Sunday was particularly bad. Anna Lois realized that 


Religious Instruction 

Lydia Dixon s Sunday School class, ca. 1930. 

unless she could think of something she was not going to be able to 
have her lesson for the other children. Almost in desperation she 
said, "All right, children, bow your heads; we are going to pray for 

." As she said this, the culprit was underneath the table. 

Peeping through her fingers, as she began the prayer, she saw him 
crawl out from under the table, slip quietly into his chair and bow 
his head. He did not misbehave for the rest of the class. Obviously, 
she had found the solution to the problem. 

In 1921 under the leadership of Georgia Reece, a Christian 
Endeavor Society was organized for the teenage group. Meetings 
were held each Sunday evening. There was always a good atten- 
dance even though the young people had to walk to the services 
most of the time (Griffin "History" 14). 

In the 1940s, Elbert Newlin, the pastor, introduced a new 
activity for the young people in Christian Endeavor. It was called 
"journeying" and was done once a month. The leaders would select 
a member's home to visit for the evening service. The chosen 
member was not informed of the approaching visit and was 


Cane Creek 

surprised or horrified when the group descended for the evening 
meeting. They not only expected to have their meeting with the 
unsuspecting host or hostess but they expected to be served 
refreshments as well. Needless to say, this produced some very 
interesting and unusual treats. One person was heard to say that 
when the "journeying" began, she had fixed some peanut butter 
crackers and intended to keep them until the group finally came to 
her house. There is no record if the crackers were used or not. 

Later the Friends Youth Fellowship replaced the Christian 
Endeavor program. In recent years, a variety of programs and 
incentives for attendance have been used. Members have been 
able to take part in yearly meeting activities such as camping at 
Quaker Lake, Junior and Young Friends Yearly Meeting, work 
camps to mission fields, and annual trips to the United Nations 
in New York City. 

Daily Vacation Bible Schools have been held for many years in 
the summer, not only for the children of Cane Creek but for the 

The Christian Endeavor Society, ca. 1940. 

Religious Instruction 

children of the community as well. It was the practice in the 1 940s 
for visiting teams to come and assist with the Bible Schools. Waldo 
and Lutie Woody are well remembered for their work on such a 
team. Children were fascinated with their model of the Old 
Testament Tabernacle. 

Cane Creek First Day School has changed greatly since it began 
shortly after the Civil War. For many years it was mostly for 
children. Then someone realized that adults could benefit from a 
Sunday School also. Sometime near the beginning of this century, 
the First Day Schools began to have some of the characteristics 
which are associated with Sunday Schools today. There were classes 
and lessons and teachers and superintendents and secretaries and 

The following account from Sunday School records will give 
the reader some idea of the changes which have occurred through 
the years, "C.C. S.S. held 10th month 27, 1901. School was opened 
by reading from the 5 chpt. of Matthew followed by prayer after the 
lesson entitled Joseph and His Brothers was read." 

The classes were identified by a number and were listed with 
their attendance. There was a total of eighty-two present. The 
narrative continues, "After a collection of 14 cnts was taken for 
three girls in India. School closed with a song." Lizzie Thompson 
was the secretary and Mahlon Dixon was the superintendent. At 
the bottom of the page is the notation, "Anna Edgerton 1 1 cts. 
needy Bible School 8 cts." 

Early Friends did not limit their efforts in the area of religious 
education just to the youth of the meeting. They were progressive 
in their desire to further the education of older Friends as well. The 
formation of meeting libraries was begun in response to that desire. 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting formulated a plan to establish a 
library in each monthly meeting in 1 828. The plan was read at Cane 
Creek in November 1 829. However, Cane Creek had been discuss- 


Cane Creek 

ing plans for a library prior to that time. From the Minutes of 
Twelfth month 1829, one reads, "Plans to establish a library were 
discussed. Decision was deferred to next meeting." 

Apparently the decision was to delay establishing a library 
because it was not until February 1830, that a library plan was 
adopted by the monthly meeting. At that meeting, Joshua Chamness 
was appointed librarian. His job description was to be in charge of 
the books belonging to the meeting and to make a report of the 
number and titles to the monthly meeting. 

Later the Minutes of March 1 830 record that a standing library 
committee ofWilliam Thompson, William Weisner, James Woody, 
Nathan Pickett, Joseph Hill, and Thomas Pugh was appointed. 
Peter Stout was appointed to survey members for books to be 
donated and to propose books to be purchased. 

In May 1 83 1 , a committee was appointed to "secure subscrip- 
tions to augment the library project." Later in that same year, it was 
reported to the monthly meeting, "$ 110.17 l h total subscriptions. 
Of that $72 72 was in books, $31.95 in cash and 95 cents not likely 
to be collected." 

Friends had learned the value of committee work well, for in 
1848, a committee was appointed to "examine the library books 
and ascertain if they contained sentiments not in accordance with 
the doctrines maintained by our ancient predecessors" and report. 
One book, Portable Evidence on Christianity, was found to be 
unsuitable and excluded. On July 6, 1850, the committee asked to 
be released from their responsibility and the monthly meeting 
concurred with their request. 

Few books from this period are still in existence. It is likely most 
were lost when the meeting burned in 1 879. Those saved were with 
Friends at Rocky River or had been checked out to members. On 
July 1, 1843, the monthly meeting had approved Rocky River's 
request to house part of the library collection. 


Religious Instruction 

No library, as such, was in the present meetinghouse until 
1961. Beulah Allen, a retired librarian, gave many hours of labor in 
organizing the library. Some books were purchased and others were 
donated. Shelves were built and placed in one of the Sunday School 
classrooms. The adult books were housed there. A separate children's 
library was kept in the assembly room in the church's basement. 
When the basement was remodeled in the 1960s, the children's 
books were packed away for safe keeping. Unfortunately, they were 
too safe; they have not surfaced to this day. 

Today, the library is attractively furnished with a conference 
table and comfortable couches and chairs which create an atmo- 
sphere conducive to reading. The meeting is very fortunate to have 
had the services of Wilma Griffin, a retired public school librarian, 
to care for the collection. 

Bascom Rollins, pastor 1946—1956, with a group of dedicated workers in the 
meeting. Left to right: Sarah Primm, Lyndon Stuart, Ruth Moon, Rollins, 
and Anna Lois Dixon. 




Fear not the skeptic's puny hand 

While near the school the church will stand, 

Nor for the blinded bigots' rule 

While near the church shall stand a school 

So wrote the Quaker poet, John Greenleaf 
Whittier; so wrote and spoke the Quakers 
themselves. Friends have always been "big" 
on education, to coin a phrase from modern youth. 
There are few records of early schools; however, 
journals and diaries testify to the fact that the 
pioneers were educated in varying degrees. Legacies 
often included the stipulation, ". . .for the educa- 
tion of my children." 


Subscription schools were organized in the late 1700s. Parents 
paid a certain fee, a subscription, each time a child was enrolled. 
Monthly meeting records mention the payment of school costs for 
the children who were unable to pay. Surveys were taken regularly 
to determine the number of children without schooling. 

In May 1 832, according to the Minutes, Cane Creek planned 
to open a monthly meeting school. Part of the curriculum was daily 
Bible reading. Teachers were to be Quakers if at all possible. The 
schools were open to all children, members and non-members. 

Four years later, James Smith, Ben Hinshaw, William Hinshaw, 
William Thompson, and Thomas Stout surveyed the schools. In 
accordance with the instructions given them by the monthly 
meeting, they gathered information on the number of minors, the 
state of the schools, and also the lack of Bibles. When the survey was 
finished in February 1835, they gave the following report. There 
were four schools, two of which were taught by Friends. They had 
counted 171 minors; forty-five of the minors were under five years 
of age, and 125 were over five years. They concluded their report 
with the information that the over five-year-old group received 
"school learning." Would it be facetious to suggest that the mem- 
bers of the committee should have availed themselves of a math 
class for their addition seems a bit lacking? 

A similar report was made in February 1 838. "There have been 
six schools within the past year — three taught by Friends and three 
by persons not in membership with us. All in a mixed state and all 
are supplied with the scriptures." 

The Monthly Meeting Schools and the Subscription Schools 
evolved into neighborhood schools. Several were established in the 
area; among them, Hunting Branch, Fogleman's School, Langley 
School, West Point, Lancaster, Mudlick, Piedmont, and Fairmont 
(Sylvanian 14). 


Cane Creek 

Lancaster School was started around 1838 and served the 
community for many years. The school stood south of the entrance 
to what is now the site of The Sword of Peace near the Charlie Stout 
House on Sylvan Road. The original log structure was replaced 
with a two-story frame building by the Good Templar Society and 
was used as their meeting place as well as for a school. The log 
building has survived the years but has an interesting travel history. 
When it was replaced, it was moved some 400 yards to the east and 
used by Ed Thomas for a barn. Several years later, it was moved 
again; this time, to the west, past the original site to become one of 
the buildings for visitors to the site of the outdoor drama, The 
Sword of Peace (Griffin Notes). 

The Baltimore Association was interested in rebuilding the 
South and helping Friends recover from the Civil War. With their 
assistance, Cane Creek Monthly Meeting established the Sylvan of 
the Grove Academy in 1866. Prior to that time, there was a 

Old Sylvan Academy, established 1866. 


monthly meeting school in the meetinghouse. Allen J. Tomlinson 
of High Point was sent to Cane Creek to open the new school. 

Joseph Moore, superintendent of schools for the Baltimore 
Association, assisted with the establishment of the academy. At 
first, he was somewhat doubtful that the effort would be successful, 
but when he visited the meeting, he found the members to be 
determined to go ahead with the project. He was quite pleased to 
find that he was proven wrong and the school was successful. His 
journal entries provide interesting information about the academy: 

11th month, 19, 1866, went to Allen J. Tomlinson's school 
which opened this morning in the old meeting house, the 
school being justly weatherboarded and roofed. School 
making an orderly start with seventeen. 

12th month, 12, 1866, visit A. J. Tomlinson's school about 
eighty pupils in very good order. Regard it quite an 
achievement to haste such good order where they had 
been accustomed to disorder. . .a day of rejoicing for me 
{Sylvanian 9). 

Five months later, about 300 people attended a lecture where 
plans were made for an addition to the schoolhouse. Sylvan of the 
Grove Academy grew to be one of the largest in North Carolina. 
Each term there would be several boarding students who were 
required to pay tuition. If the students were unable to do this, the 
monthly meeting would pay for them. Religious instruction con- 
tinued to be part of the curriculum with daily Bible reading. On 
Thursday, or Fifth day, all the students were taken to the meeting- 
house where they attended the midweek worship service. Students 
were also expected to attend the First day worship service as well. 
Often the teachers were quite active in the meeting. 

One rather unusual event happened soon after the Civil War. 
The Baltimore Association not only helped establish schools but 


Cane Creek 

Allen J. Tomlinson, first principal of Sylvan Academy 

assisted with the curriculum as well. An Agriculture Club was 
added to the course of study at Sylvan about 1868. The Association 
agreed to donate a Jersey bull to the newly created department if in 
return the club members would pay the freight. In due time, the 
bull arrived with a freight bill of $50. The club members thought 
this bill was excessive and refused to pay it. 

Caleb Dixon decided to pay the bill and thus he became the 
owner of a Jersey bull named Sherman; appropriately so, some 
thought. Sherman soon became the scourge of the neighborhood. 
He would wander over the fields tearing down the rail fences as he 



went and generally creating havoc. The only person who seemed 
able to control him was the youngest member of the Dixon family, 
Zeno Dixon. He was about twelve years old at this time, and 
Sherman would allow him to lead him about with a chain and also 
ride upon his back. 

The bull could not be controlled, however, and eventually Mr. 
Dixon decided to sell him. In 1876, Zeno mounted Sherman and 
began a trip of about sixty miles to Raleigh where Sherman would 
be sold at the state fair. They got as far as Chapel Hill on the first 
day of the trip and created quite a stir when they rode into town. 
The second night was spent at Morrisville. Zeno was quite safe on 
the trip, because when anyone approached them, Sherman would 
lower his head and bellow a few times and any would-be pranksters 
would quickly disappear. Sherman won the first prize of $20. He 
was later sold to a farmer in the eastern part of the state. Thus, the 
Agriculture Club's first attempt at husbandry ended rather igno- 

Cane Creek Monthly Meeting continued to support the Sylvan 
Academy monetarily until 1903. At this time it was deeded to the 
county. In 1 908 the county recognized the need to provide facilities 
for higher education for the students and made the former Sylvan 
Academy into Sylvan High School by adding one more classroom, 
enlarging the curriculum, and hiring one more teacher. In 1912, 
Isaac and Jane Allen Hammer donated 640 acres of land in Kansas 
as an endowment for a school in the Cane Creek community. They 
also gave a cash donation, to be matched by local citizens, for a new 
building. The matching funds were raised and construction began 
almost immediately {Sylvanian 9). 

The new Sylvan School building was located south of the 
meetinghouse, across Cane Creek atop a small hill known as "Flint 
Hill" on land purchased from Cicero Dixon {Sylvanian 9). It was 
aptly named. Generations of school children could testify about 


Cane Creek 

innumerable skinned elbows and knees received from falls on the 
flint rocks. 

The large two— story Georgian style building was constructed in 
about a year. It was during this time that the county decided to 
consolidate several small community schools. Thus, the building 
would serve a much larger population than had been originally 

School was held in the new location at the beginning of the term 
in 1 9 1 3. The cornerstone was appropriately engraved "The Allen- 
Hammer Memorial. School" in appreciation for the endowment 
which made construction possible. Despite efforts to comply with 
the name change, this school would forever be known as Sylvan. 

In 1960 Sylvan was consolidated with four other high schools 
in southern Alamance County to form Southern High School. 
Sylvan School is now an elementary school with grades kindergar- 
ten through fifth. A fire destroyed the original two-storied building 
in the 1970s. The smaller building, which survived the fire, served 
the school population very adequately for a number of years. 
However, in the 1990s, the population of Snow Camp increased 
when several mobile home parks were opened in the area. Conse- 
quently, the enrollment of Sylvan School ballooned making new 
classrooms a necessity, and a new building was begun on "Flint 

Just as their forefathers did, members of Cane Creek Meeting 
support the school and take much interest in their children's 


Concern for Missions 
and Outreach 

To do missions without serving the needs 
of those whose spiritual and physical con- 
dition must change is to carry an empty, 
hypocritical gospel. 

These words spoken so aptly in the 1 980s at 
a session of North Carolina Yearly Meet- 
ing could have been spoken just as appro- 
priately in the late 1700s, for they succinctly state 
what must have been the motivation for missions at 
Cane Creek Monthly Meeting during the early 
years. Then missions meant a concern for the well- 
being of others, whether it be for an individual or 
an entire meeting. This principle is exemplified by 
the following Minute: First month 1781, David 

Cane Creek 

Smith was appointed by the monthly meeting to "inquire into the 
sufferings of Friends and to report as to their needs." One can only 
assume that steps were taken by the monthly meeting to meet any 
existing needs that were reported. 

Neither was it unusual for persons to ask the monthly meeting 
for assistance in personal matters. In 1 784, "A concern for care was 
expressed by William Courtney, brother of James and Joseph 
Courtney, both blind, asking Friends to procure maintenance for 
them." This was done. Similar incidents and requests were re- 
corded throughout the next century. 

Almost one hundred years later, in June 1873, Sarah Wilson 
had a concern to visit "some that are afflicted, and also to visit the 
Poor House in Randolph County." The monthly meeting united 
in encouraging her to attend "as wisdom dictates." 

One of the more enterprising projects was the construction in 
the late 1 800s of a two-room house, just north of the meetinghouse 
near the spring, for the use of an elderly woman who had no means 
of support. Not only did the meeting build her a house, but it also 
assumed the responsibility of providing food and other necessities 
for her. After her death, the little house, affectionately known as the 
"Abigail House" was used for a classroom at Sylvan School (Griffin 
"History" 37). 

In a similar vein and more recently, the Quaker men's organi- 
zation, in collaboration with Mount Pleasant Methodist Church, 
built a house for a black family whose home was old and dilapi- 
dated. Once, the monthly meeting even rented a woman's land so 
that she could have an income. It has always been the custom to 
provide firewood for those persons in the community who have 
difficulty in procuring their own. 

Cane Creek's concern for the needs of the people was not 
confined to the surrounding areas. Ways of communication im- 


Concern for Missions and Outreach 

proved between communities, between monthly meetings, and 
between yearly meetings in direct proportion to the increase in 
population. Better communication alerted the monthly meeting to 
the needs of people not only nearby but in faraway places as well. 
The scene was set for a more far-reaching concern in the area of 
foreign missions. It was this concern which gave birth to the 
women's missionary movement. 

A leader in the organization of the Women's Missionary Union 
and the first editor of its monthly magazine, The Advocate, was a 
birthright member of Cane Creek: Eliza Clark Armstrong Cox. She 
was the daughter of Alexander and Ann Johnson Clark, who were 
married September 5 , 1 840. The monthly meeting appointed Ruth 
Stafford and Lydia Pugh to attend the ceremony and entertain- 
ment. They did as instructed and later reported that they "saw 
nothing disorderly" (Griffin "History" 38). 

Eliza Clark was born February 6, 1 850. When she was six years 
old, her grandfather, Dougan Clark, a Friends minister, encour- 
aged the family to move to Indiana to escape the evils of slavery. 
They settled at Monrovia and joined the West Union Friends 
Meeting. At the age of twenty-seven, Eliza Clark married Joshua 
Armstrong. Eight years after his death, she married Joseph Cox, 
also a Quaker. 

It was in Indiana that the idea for a society for Friends women 
was born. She learned that some of the Quaker women from her 
local meeting were attending a women's foreign missionary society 
at a local Methodist Episcopal Church. She reasoned, correctly, 
that if the Quaker women had a desire to do this kind of service, 
they should have a society of their own (Hinshaw and Hockett 1). 

She immediately began work to make her idea become a reality. 
Soon she found others with similar ideas, and, in March 1891, the 
first organization was formed at Hopewell Meeting in Indiana. 


Cane Creek 

Within a few weeks eight local societies had been formed through- 
out Western Yearly Meeting. When representatives met at the 
sessions of Western Yearly Meeting in September of that year, a 
formal organization was formed and Eliza Armstrong Cox was 
selected as its head 

Through correspondence with relatives the women of North 
Carolina caught the idea of a Woman's Missionary Society. In 
1 8 8 5 , at Yearly Meeting, the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
was organized with a twofold purpose: "to spread the Gospel 
among the heathen, and for the elevation of women in the Yearly 
Meeting." In 1925 the Triennial Conference of the Women's 
Missionary Union met in Greensboro. Eliza Armstrong Cox was 
there and was described as "a tiny, lively, saintly woman" (Hinshaw 
and Hockett 2-6). 

It was at this time that she paid a visit to her birthplace in the 
Cane Creek community. When she arrived she stood in the yard for 
a moment, looked at her surroundings, and then said, "Leave me 
alone and I will show you the spring and the location of the pig 
pen." Within minutes she had located the spring and walked to the 
spot where the pig pen had stood. She explained that she would 
never forget that spot, for one morning, as she watched her father 
feed the pigs, she poked a finger through the fence and a pig bit off 
the end of her finger (Griffin "History" 39). 

The Women's Missionary Society of Cane Creek was orga- 
nized about 1910. Miles Reece came to Sylvan School as a teacher 
in 1909. His wife, Georgia Griffith Reece, had been a missionary 
in Jamaica. She soon generated enough interest among the women 
of the meeting to organize the first missionary society. From that 
time until the present, the women have continued to meet monthly. 

During the late 1930s and 1940s there were two missionary 
circles. One met in the afternoon and soon became known as the 


Concern for Missions and Outreach 

Quitters, ca. 1940. Left to right, Anna Lois Dixon, Kathlene Whitehead, 
Nona Williams, Christine McPherson, Mildred Durham, Verla Thompson, 
Phoebe Pike, Annie Wright, Lena Durham, Gertrude Pike, Inez Williams, 
Kathryn Carter, Alice Teague, Lorena Thompson, Ruth Moon. 

"Old Women's Circle," leaving one to surmise that the night circle 
was for "young women." The mid— century years of the 1950s 
became the glory years with four night circles, one afternoon circle, 
a junior missionary group for young teens which met on Saturday 
afternoons, and also a group for older teens and unmarried young 
women. At the present time the count is back to two, one at night 
and one in the afternoon. 

Some excerpts from the circle minute books indicate the 
interest and the work of the various groups. For example, the junior 
missionary group met with Mattie Thompson, their sponsor and 
adult advisor, in October 1945. There were six members present, 
181 Bible chapters read, twenty-three visits to shut-ins and four 


Cane Creek 

bunches of flowers "carried." A coloring contest was discussed with 
twenty-five cents offered as first prize. Second prize was fifteen 
cents. Joanna Thompson was the secretary. 

The Hackney Reece Circle, composed of older members, met 
in the afternoon once a month for many years. On July 19, 1944, 
they met at Lucy Kimball's home with twelve members present. It 
was recorded that their membership was twenty— nine "paid— up" 
members. Also, their circle had been rated a "standard society" 
according to the "attainments" set by the yearly meeting union. It 
is unclear what this entailed. 

In an earlier Minute from this same circle one reads, "The best 
way to win a family to Christ is by first winning the mother 'because 
she is so ignorant'." Hopefully this statement was taken out of 
context by the recording secretary! 

Today the work and influence of the Women's Missionary 
Society continues to be strong. In many areas tradition is upheld as 
the modern society member often makes beautiful quilts for sale at 
fund-raising activities, sews for the American Friends Service 
Committee, provides meats and vegetables for the annual Brunswick 
stew sale, and, as the junior circle did years ago, reads Bible chapters, 
sends cards, visits shut-ins, and carries flowers. 


Quaker Custom, 
Quaker Testimony 

The custom of disownment was practiced 
extensively in the early Quaker meetings. 
It was considered a deterrent to miscon- 
duct and was enacted in a loving and caring envi- 
ronment. The root causes of many disownments 
could be traced to the use of alcoholic beverages. 
Friends developed a strong temperance testimony 
in an effort to overcome the detrimental effects of 
alcohol upon society. 

The practice of disownment became more preva- 
lent as the Society of Friends grew and spread. 
Every religious group has rules and regulations for 
its members to follow, and Friends are no excep- 
tion. However, in the Quaker faith, there is no 
formal creed but rather a statement of faith. 

Cane Creek 

Early Friends considered themselves a people "apart" from the 
world and, as such, did not want things or people of the world to 
infringe on or interfere with their way of life. They dressed plainly 
and condemned worldly ideas and pleasures. Marrying out of the 
fellowship of believers and associating with persons overly con- 
cerned with worldly matters such as politics and war were consid- 
ered serious violations of the rules of discipline which had been 
made for their daily living as well as for their spiritual well-being. 

Any indiscretion that others saw as an impediment to their faith 
would be duly reported to the monthly meeting in the form of a 
complaint. A committee of "weighty Friends" would be appointed 
to visit the culprit and try to convince the person of his mistake. If 
the person were not willing to admit his error, a second or third visit 
might be made. If the matter could not be settled satisfactorily, the 
committee would advise disownment. 

On the other hand, if the individual were willing to prepare a 
paper condemning his or her conduct, the monthly meeting would 
accept it and the matter would be dropped. Should the person 
refuse to condemn his own actions, the monthly meeting would 
disown him. 

A typical paper of condemnation was recorded in the 1890s: 

To Cane Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends, I have been 
overtaken and am guilty of immoral conduct of which I am 
very sorry ask monthly meeting to forgive me and by the 
Lord's help I will endeavor to live a consistent life (Griffin 

Perhaps a more enlightening paper would be in answer to the 
inevitable question, "What happened in a marriage that had been 
performed out of unity with the meeting, if one of the partners 
condemned his or her own actions and asked for forgiveness?" 

The Minutes of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting bear mute 


A Quaker Custom — A Quaker Testimony 

testimony to the large number of members who were disowned 
during the nineteenth century. In fact, a local wag has made the 
statement, "Our church [Methodist] would never have grown 
much if the Quakers had ever stopped disowning people." 

The Minutes of the meeting record many various reasons for 
disownments. Some border on the trivial; some seem almost 
hilarious to the modern reader. It is important to realize they were 
neither trivial nor hilarious to the individual involved — or to the 

Some of the more serious reasons for disownment were marry- 
ing out of unity, marrying contrary to discipline, going into a 
society of different persuasion (for example, Methodist), retailing 
spiritous liquors, keeping unlawful company with another man's 
wife, not attending meeting, departing from plain living, having 
carnal knowledge of his wife before marriage, holding and selling 
slaves, refusing to pay a note of indebtedness, having a child in an 
unmarried state, attending a mustering, paying a military fee, 
accusing women's meeting of falsifying Minutes. 

Other reasons which appear to be more trivial to the reader 
today are tale bearing, dancing or trying to dance, wearing hair 
disagreeable to Friends, showing a dislike to a friend in a time of 
prayer, enclosing and claiming sheep belonging to a neighbor, 
helping a brother steal a young woman to marry, throwing rocks, 
and using profanity. When the last reason was given as a complaint 
the meeting changed the charge to "using unseemly language." 

One instance of condemning one's own conduct that was not 
beneficial is told of a Friend who had made a name for himself as 
a teller of very tall tales. The usual procedures were taken after 
someone complained about him to the monthly meeting. In due 
time, the committee which had been appointed to talk with him 
arrived at his home and spent several hours with him pointing out 


Cane Creek 

the error of his ways. Finally, he was asked if he were sorry for his 
actions. He replied, "Oh, yes, I have already shed a barrel of tears." 

The monthly meeting never acted hastily in the matter of 
disownments. Some times months would elapse before the matter 
could be settled. The Herman Husband affair, for example, took 
fifteen months to settle. 

Disownments rarely occur any more. Originally, perhaps, 
there may have been merit in such action. Early Friends certainly 
believed that the practice was necessary; in reality it proved to be 
otherwise. Allen Thomas, m A History of Friends in America, seems 
to say it best, "That the denomination should have lived at all 
through such restrictions is a striking evidence of the power that was 
in the body [of believers] " (193). 

The Cane Creek Meeting had a great concern about the use of 
spiritous liquor and the problems resulting from its use and sale. 
Numerous members were disowned for using spiritous liquor to 
excess, for retailing the same, and also for the distillation of it. In 
other words, they were greatly disturbed about those persons who 
made, sold, or used alcohol. 

Committees were appointed by the monthly meeting each year 
to take a survey every three months to find who used intoxicating 
liquors and who did not. According to the Minutes of August 1 844, 
it was reported that the results of a survey revealed 115 people who 
did not use alcoholic beverages and ten who did use them. The 
report also listed those who used alcohol for medicinal purposes. 

Perhaps the low number of persons who used alcohol could, in 
part, be attributed to the organization of the Pleasant Hill Temper- 
ance Society in 1833. This organization's goal was to inform and 
ultimately wipe out the use of "spiritous liquors." William Albright, 
a local medical doctor, was the founder and guide for many years. 
Cane Creek joined the society along with several other churches in 


A Quaker Custom — A Quaker Testimony 

the area. Over the years attendance and membership dropped until 
only Cane Creek and Pleasant Hill remained as members. The 
meetings were held twice a year. Pleasant Hill hosted the meeting 
on the Fourth of July each year and Cane Creek's turn was on 
Christmas Day. This organization continued to function until the 
1950s. On the 100th anniversary of its founding, an all-day 
program was held at Pleasant Hill. The speaker was Judge Johnson 
J. Hayes. The major concern of the meeting was the repeal of the 
eighteenth amendment. At the meeting, 310 new members were 
added to the membership. There is no record of the entire member- 
ship (Society Minutes 1933). 

There were two other temperance civic organizations in the 
area in the 1 800s: the Good Templars and the Sons of Temperance. 
The former was particularly influential in the area. Their sole 
purpose seems to have been the control of intoxicating liquors 
(Griffin "History" 34). 

In January 1909, Cane Creek appointed a Temperance Com- 
mittee composed of Eula Dixon, Flora Stout, J. Randolph Coble, 
and W. Taylor Pickett. Their duties were "to call the attention of 
the meeting to such matters relating to temperance reform both 
state and national, insist on vigilant support of our state prohibition 
laws by the entire membership, encourage scientific temperance 
instruction in the public schools, and give a written report to the 
monthly meeting at the end of the church year." 

Quakers did not always take part in civil affairs, but in the 
matter of temperance they were quite active. In 1933, the monthly 
meeting enlisted the aid of State Representative Gilliam in getting 
the North Carolina Legislature to pass a bill prohibiting the sale of 
beer within one and one-half miles of the meeting and school. The 
bill was passed. A few years ago, however, it could not be enforced. 


Cane Creek Community 

The Cane Creek community has not been 
conducive to commercial enterprise 
through the years. Attempts have been 
made to establish some kind of industry in the 
community from time to time, but none of them 
has been successful enough to withstand the test of 
time. It is almost as if fate has decided that Snow 
Camp should forever remain a small village in a 
pastoral setting. 

In the beginning each pioneer family was fairly 
self-sufficient. They learned to "make do with 
what they had or do without." For the first fifty 
years the people of Snow Camp were primarily 
interested in survival. All of their efforts were 
expended toward the establishment of their homes, 

Cane Creek Community 

farms, and their meeting. They were busy sending roots deep into 
the Carolina soil. 

There were times when the pioneers found it expedient to share 
the skills of one another. One of the earliest traditions among them 
was that of banding together to "raise a cabin or a barn." When a 
need arose, there was no hesitancy on the part of the frontier men 
or women to share their skills or provide a service. For example, 
Rachel Allen was a "doctor." She had a knowledge of various herbs, 
wild plants, and homemade remedies which she would prescribe 
for pioneer aches and pains. It is said that she kept her "medicine" 
in the little room at the rear of their cabin. People came to her for 
help or she would make "housecalls" {Alamance Battleground). 
There is no indication that she charged for her assistance; perhaps 
grateful patients would have given her some token of appreciation. 
By a very large stretch of the imagination, one might say this was 
Snow Camp's first pharmacy. 

The tendency to work together and share their corporate skills 
grew in direct proportion to the increasing number of people 
coming into the Snow Camp area. The first businesses were 
probably begun when one skill was traded for another. For in- 
stance, a man with the tools and skill of a blacksmith might shoe a 
horse for his neighbor. In return, the neighbor might repair the 
smithy's harnesses. This kind of exchange could have been parlayed 
into a small business by an enterprising pioneer. 

Some settlers came to the community with the intention of 
establishing a business, perhaps as a sideline for the primary 
purpose of farming. They carried with them any tools they would 
need for this secondary purpose. Simon Dixon with his millstones 
is a good example. Others came equally prepared for similar 

The first industry in the Snow Camp area was grist mills. The 


Cane Creek 

economic premise of supply and demand made this an attractive 
business opportunity which continued into the twentieth century. 
An interview with Wilma Griffin provided the information about 
the first industries and stores in the Snow Camp community. 

South of Snow Camp approximately two and one-half miles 
on state road 1004, commonly known as the Snow Camp Road, 
one can turn right onto the Old Dam Road. The road built over the 
old dam is all that remains of a grist mill built by Jones Cantor 
around 1 875 . The small dam provided enough power for a saw mill 
as well as the grist mill. The mill had various owners, some for only 
a short time: Franklin Hinshaw, Tyree Hinshaw, Maurice Stuart, 
and, the last one, Wesley Routh. This mill became inoperable about 

In 1885 the Little Ward Mill was built about two miles west of 
the Cane Creek Meetinghouse on a tributary of Cane Creek. This 
mill building stands on the property of Juanita Euliss. 


Cane Creek Community 

Apparently, then as now, diversification became necessary for 
businesses to succeed. South of Sylvan School on Chamness' Creek, 
William Thompson not only ground wheat but also made rifles and 
chairs, ginned cotton, and ran a wool carding operation as well. 
Two generations after Simon Dixon's death, the Dixon family 
found it necessary to expand their operation by ginning cotton and 
doing some foundry work. Murphy Williams in the 1930s and 
1940s would also use part of the Dixon mill for a cabinet shop. 
Examples of his craft can still be found in the community. 

At one time there were two foundries in operation in Snow 
Camp. The Snow Camp Foundry stood on the north bank of the 
Cane Creek about two miles downstream from Dixon's mill. Since 
water power was the energy source of that time for mills and 
factories, a dam was usually built before the factory itself. Jesse 
Dixon, with a team of oxen, built the dam across Cane Creek to 
supply power for his new business. He called his new venture the 
Snow Camp Manufacturing Company, but it would forever be 
called "the foundry" by local people. 

Snow Camp's second foundry was built by Timple Unthank 
around the year 1850. It was known as the Fairmount Foundry. 
After the Civil. War, it was reorganized and expanded by D. H. 
Albright, W.J. Stockard, Nathan Stafford, and William Henley. It 
stood about two miles south of the Snow Camp Foundry on what 
is today Workman Road. Business boomed for both foundries after 
the Civil War. Jobs in the foundries were much sought after. A few 
cabins were provided for the workers but most of the employees 
lived in their own homes in the area. Competition for the sale of 
foundry products increased with the establishment of foundries in 
nearby towns. The cost of production also mounted, and eventu- 
ally neither of the foundries found it feasible to continue operation. 
By 1900, both had ceased production. 

Snow Camp did not escape the insurgence of the textile 


Cane Creek 

industry into Alamance County. At about the same time that E. M. 
Holt was beginning his textile empire some ten miles northwest of 
Snow Camp on the Little Alamance Creek, the Snow Camp 
Cotton Factory began operation in 1835. The company was 
composed of one thousand stockholders. In just a few years, they 
had bought four acres of land from Peter Stout, made bricks by the 
thousands, and constructed a three-story brick building to house 
their new endeavor. This building stood about a mile downstream 
from the Snow Camp Foundry. 

At that point on the river, Peter Stout had previously built a 
small dam. This dam was very unusual, for it curved across the river 
rather than being straight. He built it to furnish power for his saw 
mill. It was not high enough to provide the force needed to run 
cotton mill machinery so the dam had to be raised several feet. The 
large stones were quarried about one-half mile upstream and 
floated down to the dam site. 


Settled by Quakers in 
1749. Cornwallis camped 
in area after Battle 
of Guilford Courthouse 
and used home of Simon 
Dixon as headquarters. 

Snow Camp Highway Marker 


Cane Creek Community 

Workers were housed in small log cabins behind the mill. This 
may have been the first mill village in Alamance County. A number 
of wells and at least one remaining house bear testimony to the 
village's location. 

In 1885 the factory was sold to a Mr. Willard from Massachu- 
setts. Later he willed the mill and property to two Holman brothers, 
and it has remained in their family through the years. The mill 
stood idle for a few years but reopened in 1 893 and continued with 
various types of manufacturing until 1 937. The big metal waterwheel 
was sold for scrap metal during World War II. 

About one mile west of the cotton factory, also on the banks of 
Cane Creek, was another textile industry, the Snow Camp Woolen 
Mill. It was located on the site of the Snow Camp Foundry. It was 
started in 1886 by Hugh and Thomas C. Dixon. The woolen mill 
produced blankets, flannel material, and knitting yarn. It em- 
ployed a dozen people who were paid about $1.00 a day. Meager 
by comparison with the wages of the present time, it was a very good 
salary then. Similar jobs in other textile factories in Burlington paid 
only about $.50 a day. The Dixons tried to provide good working 
conditions for their employees. Two small houses were built to 
accommodate those workers who did not live within walking 
distance of the mill. 

The tin covered building would have been very hot in summer 
and cold in winter. There were tall windows across the front and 
sides for light and ventilation. Much care had to be taken with the 
heating arrangements in the winter because of the volatile nature of 
the materials used. 

The two Dixons hoped to leave a stable and well-established 
business to their heirs. This was not to be the case for Hugh's son, 
Joe, had other ideas. He did not want to run the mill, preferring to 
go West and seek his fortune there. Joe prevailed on a friend of his 


Cane Creek 

to come into the family business in his place. This incident set the 
stage for Tom McVey to assume a prominent role in the life of the 

Tom McVey was born in the Snow Camp community in 1 8 59. 
He was educated at Sylvan Academy and New Garden Boarding 
School (later Guilford College). He was a firm supporter of 
education for all persons. After his graduation he became a teacher 
in Moore County, where he met and married Fanny Tyson. When 
he became a rather reluctant half-owner of the Snow Camp 
Woolen Mill in 1 893, the direction of his life changed, but he never 
lost his dedication to education (Hughes). 

Despite his reluctance, Tom McVey proved to be a good 
business man and undoubtedly was proud of his business acuity. 
He was also keenly interested in politics and was an ardent 
Republican. He served the constituency of Snow Camp for three 
terms as county commissioner. One of the highlights of his life was 
meeting President Taft in Washington. This meeting could well 
have been arranged by his friend, Joe Dixon, who had been very 
successful in Montana. Dixon was governor of that state and later 
was appointed United States Assistant Secretary of the Interior. 

Tom McVey was secretary and treasurer of the woolen mill. 
The president was also an unusual person who would play an 
important role in the Snow Camp community. Her name was Eula 
Dixon. While Tom may have come to the mill by default, Eula 
inherited her share from her father, Thomas Dixon. 

Eula Dixon was born during the period of reconstruction of the 
South following the Civil. War. She was a great granddaughter of 
Simon Dixon and exhibited the same kind of dedication, determi- 
nation, and tenacity to do a task well, as Simon had exhibited as he 
helped to settle a new home and community (Hobbs). 

Eula Dixon was a pioneer in women's rights, although it is 


Cane Creek Community 

Eula Dixon 

doubtful that she would have described herself in those terms. Born 
in a time in history when a woman's place was considered by the 
vast majority of people to be in the home, she was indeed an 
exception to that train of thought. When her father died in 1899, 
she assumed the responsibility for the family farm as well as 
presidency of the woolen mill. When she was thirty years old, she 
became the first woman student to attend the State Agriculture and 
Mechanical Arts College in Raleigh. When she returned home, she 
put into practice the knowledge she had acquired. Her plantation 
became one of the best in the area. Together, she and Tom McVey 
made many improvements at the woolen mill and greatly increased 


Cane Creek 

its productivity. 

Tom McVey and Eula Dixon were alike in many ways. They 
both had a great love for Cane Creek Meeting assuming active roles 
in various capacities. They were both keenly interested in good 
education for all persons, and both served terms as the chairperson 
of the local school board. 

Eula relinquished her role in the woolen mill soon after Tom 
died in 1 9 1 0. The mill burned in 1 9 1 2. The owners were reluctant 
to invest in repairs. Thus, the textile industry came to an end in 
Snow Camp. 

A contributing factor to the failure of the factories and the 
foundries was a lack of good transportation. The raw material for 
both had to be brought by wagon over many miles of sometimes 
almost impassable roads. The market for their products was many 
miles away. As the productivity of both factories and farms in- 
creased, the problem of poor roads became greater. It became 
necessary for the farmer and the factory owner to seek a solution to 
the problem. 

The idea of a plank road was born. A road made of planks would 
provide a stable surface over which wagons loaded with produce 
and supplies could travel easily. A company known as the Graham 
Gulf Plank Road Company was formed. John Stafford was the 
president and H. W. Dixon was vice president. Construction began 
in 1853 (Griffin Notes). 

The road was to have begun in Graham, go southward to Gulf 
where it would intersect with the Salem plank road and continue 
on to Fayetteville. For some unknown reason, the road began in 
Snow Camp rather than Graham. Perhaps it was because Hugh 
Dixon set up a saw mill to cut the planks near Snow Camp. 

There were toll stations every seven miles. The one at Snow 
Camp stood on the north side of Cane Creek just before the road 


Cane Creek Community 

crossed the bridge. A teamster would purchase tickets for his trip at 
the first toll station he came to. He would have paid between two 
and one-half cents to five cents a mile, depending on the number 
of horses he had and how heavily his wagon was loaded. The 
teamster's destination was noted on each ticket. He was expected 
to turn in all the tickets when he arrived at his destination and 
failure to do so resulted in a fine. Each toll station bore a reminder, 
"Pay toll, give up tickets or pay fine." A generally understood rule 
for drivers on the plank road was that if going downhill, the driver 
could use all the plank. Other times, he could only use half. 

After the Civil War there was no money for maintenance of the 
road, so it fell into disrepair and eventual disuse. Gradually, it 
rotted away or was covered with dirt. Even in recent years, portions 
of the plank road have been found as new excavations have been 
made for modern roads. 

When the initial grading for the Snow Camp-Siler City road 
was done, not only parts of the plank road were found but a human 
skeleton as well. It was not identifiable but some older residents 
thought it might have solved a mystery of many years. A Mr. 
Vincent had disappeared without a trace several years before. Foul 
play was suspected, but no body was ever found. The skeleton could 
be that of Mr. Vincent. How clever his murderer to stuff the body 
under the planks of the road! The only question still unanswered is 
the identification of the murderer. 

Snow Camp residents continued to try to improve their 
transportation problem. In 1 828 an effort was made to bring a line 
of the railroad near or through Snow Camp. Two hundred people 
met at the home of William Albright to discuss the matter. The 
railroad was strange and unknown to many of them. The meeting 
did not achieve the desired results, as the railroad was built several 
miles to the north of Snow Camp. There is a story that has been told 
for many years concerning one of the attenders at the meeting. This 


Cane Creek 

particular man rose to voice his opposition to the railroad coming 
to Snow Camp. He posed this question: "We will be safe as long as 
the train comes through as it is supposed to — longways — but 
what will we do if it ever comes through sideways?" 

Another type of industry did rather well in Snow Camp for a 
number of years. Tom and Tim Boggs ran a successful pottery shop 
on property which is owned today by Bill Roach of Liberty. Most 
of the pottery was made for utilitarian purposes such as crocks for 
milk or cream. There were also small mouthed jugs which could 
hold cider, vinegar, or any other "liquid" which might be made 
locally. Their wares were taken into nearby cities for sale. Today 
their products demand a substantial price if a piece can be found 
for sale. 

The mercantile business has been only slightly more successful 
than industry in Snow Camp. Through the years there have been 
several stores in and around the village. There was a company store 
operated by the cotton factory. It became Holman's Store when the 
ownership of the factory changed. As was the policy of most 
company stores, the workers could charge their purchases and the 
amount would be deducted from their paychecks . The first store 
stood northeast of the mill near the river. Later it was moved to the 
other side of the mill where it was more accessible to other 
customers. The store remained in business for many years after the 
cotton factory closed and was a favorite gathering place in the 
community. A trip to the store was enjoyed not only to buy but to 
socialize as well. The storekeepers were exceedingly careful in 
keeping the accounts. The store ledgers often reveal much more 
than the cost of the purchases. One such storekeeper recorded the 
sale of a bottle of whiskey for the mother of the purchaser. He 
carefully noted that it was her medicine. 

The Snow Camp Market is located on the site of at least two 
earlier stores. Hayes Thompson had a small general store there long 


Cane Creek Community 

before there was an intersection. When Mr. Thompson moved 
sometime in the late 1920s, Ed Griffin and Everett Durham built 
a new store building at that location. It was considered quite 
modern for its time. It had a wide portico which extended out over 
the gasoline pumps. The pumps had glass bulbs at the top which 
held several gallons of gasoline. A manually operated lever pumped 
the gasoline up into the bulb. The force of gravity caused the 
gasoline to flow downward through a hose into the gas tank of a car. 
There was a large two-story feed building adjacent to the store with 
apartments on the second floor. When the Chapel Hill Road was 
built, the store building was too close to the intersection for safety. 
It was torn down and the present building replaced it. 

South of the Snow Camp Market at the foot of the hill is the site 
of the old post office building. For many years the post office 
occupied the left corner of the building. The rest of the space was 
a general store operated by the Cobles. It was also the site of 
community gatherings from time to time. In the 1940s it was a 
makeshift health clinic. The county health department held mass 
inoculations for typhoid, diphtheria, and whooping cough. People 
from miles around would gather at the post office on the day 
appointed for "shots." They came early for it was a great time of 
visiting with friends. Finally, the nurses would arrive, set up their 
equipment under a big tree and begin. The children found it fun 
to watch and see who among their cohorts would cry and who 
would not. 

Henry Hornaday operated a store at the corner of the Snow 
Camp and Sylvan School roads. It was close by the route many 
children took as they walked to school just up the hill. Sometimes 
mothers would send eggs to the store by their children in the 
morning to trade for some staple which the children would stop for 
at the store on their way home. 

After Mr. Hornaday sold the store and moved away, the 


Cane Creek 

Snow Camp community 


Cane Creek Community 

building changed ownership several times. Finally, Hayes Thomp- 
son decided to continue his career as a merchant and he bought it. 
It probably was at that time that the building was moved across the 
road to its present location. Hayes's son, F. Paul Thompson, and 
his wife ran the store for a number of years. The store building 
remains, but it has been converted to an apartment building. 

Bill Fogleman ran Snow Camp's smallest store. It was in front 
of his house on the road that led from Griffin's store to the Cane 
Creek Meetinghouse. It was only about twelve feet by fifteen feet 
with a small roof extension at the front. Mr. Fogleman stocked a few 
staples primarily as a service to his neighbors. He ran a much larger 
store near Little Ward Mill. Since this was some miles away, it was 
much more convenient for some of his customers to come to the 
little store. However, it was not more convenient for Mr. Fogleman, 
for he traveled between the stores each day. 

Today, Snow Camp is a quiet little village. There is no industry. 
There is one grocery store, two garages, a restaurant, and a post 
office. There are still several farms in the area, but, for the most part, 
people commute to nearby towns to work. It is only a sleepy little 
village not too far removed from its beginnings. 


The Sword of Peace 

The Snow Camp Historical Drama Society 
and ultimately The Sword of Peace, an 
outdoor drama, grew out of a chance 
remark made by a visitor in the home of Ed and 
Lorraine Griffin in the late 1960s. The visitor was 
a young man, Bobby Wilson, from Morganton, 
North Carolina, who had recently moved to the 
area. He was enthralled by the Griffins' stories 
about the settlement of the Snow Camp area. His 
interest prompted him to exclaim, "This is good 
enough for an outdoor drama." And so it was. 

The idea grew and spread. People began to 
consider seriously the possibility of a drama , which 
for many would be the story of their ancestors. 
Bobby's brother, James Wilson, joined the effort 
and promoted it at every opportunity in his local 
cafe. Soon the Snow Camp Historical Drama Soci- i 

The Sword of Peace 

ety was formed on January 20, 1 97 1 . A ground swell of community 
support was generated at a meeting for "all interested persons" at 
the Cane Creek Meetinghouse in the spring of that year. The 
overflow crowd of more than 400 persons emphasized the fact 
that this was a project in which a good number of people were 
very interested. It soon proved to be more than a community 
project, for it quickly caught the interest of people in the surround- 
ing areas and in the five counties adjacent to Alamance. 

A drama for Snow Camp was soon the topic of conversation in 
many places. It seemed that everyone had an idea of what should be 
done and how to accomplish it, and they were willing to tell anyone 
who would listen. Such was the case one afternoon for three of the 
more enthusiastic supporters. They were driving along so engrossed 
in the discussion of future plans that they did not notice the car was 
gradually slowing down and wobbling quite decidedly. Their 
discussion was soon halted by a blue light and a siren. They quickly 
pulled over to the side of the road. It was rather difficult to make 
the patrolman understand that all they were doing was talking. 
Eventually he did believe them and let them continue on their way 
with the parting admonition, "Hold it in the road." 

Confidently armed with the community support, Wilma Grif- 
fin, Bobby Wilson, and Clara Winslow met with Mark Sumner of 
the Institute of Outdoor Drama at Chapel Hill. His suggestions 
proved invaluable to the fledgling society. 

Members of the Snow Camp Historical Drama Society began 
immediately to bring their dream to reality. A slide presentation 
was created to capture the interest of possible supporters, volun- 
teers, civic organizations, nearby churches, and local businesses. A 
portion of land south of the Cane Creek just off the Sylvan School 
Road was leased from Algie Stephens and Joe Coble for a nominal 
fee. William Hardy was chosen to write the script. A formal 
ground-breaking ceremony with Governor Robert Scott was held 


Cane Creek 

and the society met their first year's funding goal of $21,000. 

Ironically, the initial grading for the amphitheater which 
would be used for a drama dealing with peace was done by a 
volunteer group of soldiers from Fort Bragg. They removed trees 
from the natural slope of land along the banks of Cane Creek. Jim 
Euliss volunteered his time and the use of his equipment to build 
the first access road into the site. The entire seating area was graded 
by Coy McPherson and his trusty bulldozer. Other volunteers 
helped with the utilitarian projects such as bathrooms, walkways, 
and parking facilities. However, the aesthetics were not neglected: the 
site was tastefully landscaped with flowers, shrubs, and native trees. 

The Snow Camp Historical Drama Society has enjoyed contin- 
ued support from the community throughout its more than twenty 
years of existence. Today, a number of volunteers and patrons form 
a nucleus from which the drama society draws its support. The 
volunteers traditionally man the various buildings that are open to 
the public prior to each evening performance. A "meet the cast" 
picnic is held each year to strengthen the ties between the cast and 
the community. 

The Sword of Peace opened July 4, 1 974, with a cast of twenty. 
The cast doubled the next year, and by 1977 a repertory schedule 
was begun. There was a special celebration on Sunday, July 4, 1 976, 
to mark the 200th birthday of the United States. The celebration 
began with a special televised Sunday morning service program. 
Originally planned for the amphitheater, the program was moved 
to the nearby Cane Creek Meetinghouse when the weather proved 
to be unpleasant. Seth Hinshaw, then executive secretary of North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting, was the speaker for the occasion. He 
chose the topic "One Nation Under God." 

The drama, The Sword of Peace, tells the story of Simon Dixon, 
the miller, and his wife, Elizabeth. Their quiet Quaker lives are 
disrupted by the events leading to the Battle of Alamance, a 


The Sword of Peace 

confrontation between the Regulators and the militia of Governor 
Tryon. Simon is the father figure for Thomas Hadley, a young 
Quaker lad who grows to young manhood as he resolves the conflict 
of joining others to fight for their country or remaining out of the 
conflict as his Quaker faith dictates. The drama culminates with 
Lord Cornwallis bringing his troops to Snow Camp following the 
Battle of Guilford Court House. 

The Sword of Peace continues to enthrall audiences in a setting 
which, appropriately, lies a few paces east of the site of Dixon's Mill. 
The years have brought changes to the drama site with the addition 
of several buildings. Visitors can enjoy touring two early Quaker 
meetinghouses. The New Hope Meetinghouse was moved to the 
drama grounds from Randolph County near Sophia and is typical 
of a Quaker meeting of the 1800s. The Chatham Meetinghouse 
was moved from the Eli Whitney area and dates from the early part 
of the twentieth century. In addition there are log buildings, 
replicas of other buildings which would have been found in a 
typical small village of that era. 

One of the goals of the Snow Camp Historical Drama Society 
was to preserve the memory of pioneers of the Cane Creek valley. 
With The Sword of Peace, it has succeeded, 

Beginning in the summer of 1994, another drama, Pathway to 
Freedom, has been presented three nights each week. This is the 
story of the Quakers who participated in the Underground Rail- 
road, a true pathway to freedom for many slaves in the South as 
they tried to escape from their owners. The work of the Quakers 
throughout North Carolina and other states to the north is 

With these two outdoor dramas about Quakers, the Snow 
Camp Historical Drama Society has been able to educate the 
people who come to the amphitheater about two of the important 
Quaker beliefs, the evils of war and the equality of all people. 


Into the Future 

Today, Cane Creek Meetinghouse gazes 
serenely past the intersection of the Chapel 
Hill and Sylvan School Roads, past the 
fields that Simon Dixon tilled, down past the old 
stone wall, southward to the small stream from 
which it gets its name. 

Time has weathered the gravestones. Red brick 
has replaced logs as a building material. Comfort- 
able pews take the place of axe-scarred benches. 
Modern cars park where horses with wagons were 
once hitched. 

Fortunately, some things have not changed. 
Men and women still gather on First day for 
worship. Children are loved and cared for as they 

Into the Future 

are guided toward worthwhile adulthood. Older Friends are appre- 
ciated and valued. There are active concerns for the welfare for not 
only those persons within the Snow Camp community but within 
the universal community as well. 

While it is true many changes have occurred through the years 
and what appeared to be insurmountable tragedies have disap- 
peared with the passage of time, one thing has remained constant: 
the Quaker spirit lives and reaches out to the community from the 
meetinghouse on the hill. 



Pastoral Ministers 

1929-32 Cora Lee Norman 

1932-36 Lewis and Pearl McFarland 

1936- 37 York and Alice Teague 

1937- 41 Benjamin and Pearl Millikan 

1941-45 Elbert and Inez Newlin 

1945-49 J. Waldo and Lutie Woody 

1949-56 Bascom and Dovie Rollins 

1956-59 Willie and Agnes Frye 

1959-62 Robert and Lola Crow 

1962-65 Kenneth and Hope Wood 

1965-67 John and Sarah Kennedy 

1967- 68 Bob and Pam Medford 

1968- 72 Mark and Olivia Hodgin 

1 972-76 Hadley and Anne Robertson 

1976-83 John and Sharon Sides 

1983-87 Don and Virginia Osborne 

1987-89 Don and Ann Tickle 

1989- Dale and Marilyn Matthews 


Statistical Report 1881 

Number of meetings for worship 2, First and Fifth days 

Members 350 

Men 159 

Female 191 


By request 16 


Birth _Z 

Total 23 



By certificate 5 


Death 4 

Total 9 


Under 6 50 

Children 6-21 79 


Whole 52 

Parts 61 

Average age at death 

Years 35 


Number recorded 

ministers 2 

Meetings with no 


Use of Scriptures 

Daily 27 

Occasionally 70 

Neglect 8 


No. who use it 113 

No. who cultivate 21 

No. who sell it 5 


Number using spirits 

as a drink 4 


Cane Creek 

Statistical Report 1981 

Number of members last year 231 

Additions 14 

Losses 9 

No. members now 236 

No. households 85 

Meeting for worship 118 

Sunday School 84 

FYF — 

Monthly Meeting 15 

Sunday evening 

Members contributions $25,000.00 

Special donations 1,500.00 

Investment or interest income 880.94 

Fund raising projects 6,955.65 

All other 9,700.55 

Total Funds $44,037.14 

To employed personnel $16,652.20 

Christian education program 1,361.68 

Maintenance 7,476.27 

Capital expenditures 7,178.73 

Investments made 00.00 

Paid on indebtedness 2,700.00 

All other 200.00 

Total expenditures $18,764.85 



Yearly meeting budget $ 5,472.00 

Missions fund 200.00 

Aged ministers fund 27.00 

Quaker Lake 45.00 

Church extension 1,765.61 

Friends Home 50.00 

All other 282.00 

Friends related 150.00 

Non-Friends 442.50 

Total outreach $8,434. 1 1 

Total Disbursements $44,003.19 

(Griffin "History" 42-43) 


Cane Creek 

Meeting for Sufferings 

In the early days of the Society of Friends in England, persecu- 
tion was severe. A Meeting for Sufferings was instituted to assist 
members who were undergoing hardship and acute suffering. In 
the course of time, after persecutions had ceased, the name of this 
group was retained for a long time. In Carolina its function was to 
act for the yearly meeting when it was not in session. Later the 
Meeting for Sufferings became the Permanent Board. Now it is 
called Representative Body. 

The Charleston Fund 

The Quaker meeting in Charleston, South Carolina, was laid 
down in 1 837. The property that was left, a house and lot, provided 
an annual income to the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting who held the 
title. In 1875, the income was $12,000. Of that, $4,000 was 
reserved to build a meetinghouse in Charleston whenever there 
would be sufficient interest. In 1876, the South Carolina Legisla- 
ture authorized Friends to spend part or all of the $4,000 in 
building or in repairing meetinghouses elsewhere. Several North 
Carolina meetings were helped by this fund (Weeks 394). 

The Baltimore Association of Friends 

Northern and Southern Friends were not divided or separated 
by the Civil War, as were most other religious denominations. All 
American yearly meetings and others, including London and 
Dublin, formed an organization through which their sympathy for 
the suffering of Southern Friends could be expressed. This was 
called "The Baltimore Association to Advise and Assist Friends in 
Southern States." 

Under the leadership of Francis T. King, a wealthy Quaker 
businessman of Baltimore, this organization rendered enormous 
assistance to Southern Friends. The sum of $138,300 was raised 



and spent, mostly in North Carolina, truly a great achievement for 
that day. The first assistance to arrive was food and clothing. After 
immediate needs were met, attention was turned to the rebuilding 
of meetinghouses. Then came the reestablishment of schools and 
the building of schoolhouses. 

As leader, Francis T. King made two trips to England and forty 
trips to North Carolina. Many other workers came, such as Joseph 
Moore and Allen Jay. These men recognized the importance of 
getting children back into school, many of whom had already lost 
four or five years. A pattern was set for the reestablishment of the 
public school system in the South. In brief it might be said that, in 
a time when the continued existence of North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting was uncertain, the assistance of the Baltimore Association 
enabled Southern Quakerism to survive. Its work was discontinued 
in 1891. 


Works Cited 

Alamance Battleground Colonial Living Materials for Classrooms. 
Alamance, NC: Alamance Battleground Historical Society, 

Coble, Finley. Personal Interview. January 29, 1993. 

Cook, Albert. Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania 
1682-1750 With Early History in Ireland. Baltimore: Genea- 
logical Society, 1969. 

Crow, Robert. "History of Cane Creek Meeting." Unpublished 
Manuscript, 1962. Cane Creek Meeting Library. 

Dixon, Eula. "One of State's Historical Spots." Unpublished 
Manuscript, n.d. Cane Creek Meeting Library. 

Faith and Practice. Book of Discipline. North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting of Friends, 1985. 

Forbish, Bliss. A History of Baltimore Yearly Meeting of Friends. 
Sandy Springs, MD: Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 1972. 

Griffin, Wilma. "History of Cane Creek Meeting." Unpublished 
Manuscript, 1989. Cane Creek Meeting Library. 

. Personal Notes, n.d. Cane Creek Meeting Library. 

Haines, Lee. Micajah McPherson, A Layman with Convictions. 
Marion: Wesleyan Church Heritage Brochure #3, 1977. 

Hinshaw, Mary Edith. Pioneers in Quaker Education. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Friends Historical Society, 1992. 

Hinshaw, Mary Edith, and Ruth Hockett, eds. Growth Unlimited: 
The Story of the United Society of Friends Women. Centennial 
Edition, 1881-1981. 

Works Cited 

Hinshaw, Seth B. The Carolina Quaker Experience. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Friends Historical Society, 1984. 

. Friends at Holly Spring. Greensboro: North Carolina Friends 

Historical Society, 1982. 

Hobbs, Mary Mendenhall. "Eula Dixon." Friends Messenger, Vol. 
XXVIII, November, 1921. 

Hughes, Julian. "In Days Gone By." Burlington Times News, 1950. 

Newlin, Algie I. Friends "At the Spring. " Greensboro: North 
Carolina Friends Historical Society, 1984. 

Nicholson, Roy. "Freedom's Hill." Marion: Wesleyan Methodist 
Church, 1976. 

Powell, William. The War of the Regulation and The Battle of 
Alamance, May 16, 1771. Raleigh: State Department of Ar- 
chives and History, 1965. 

Regulator Papers, Colonial Records Vol. VII. Raleigh: North Caro- 
lina Department of Archives and History. 

Smith, Warren. One Explorer's Glossary of Quaker Terms. Philadel- 
phia: Friends General Conference, 1985. 

Stuart, Lyndon. "A History of Cane Creek Meeting." Unpublished 
Manuscript, 1955. Cane Creek Meeting Library. 

Sylvanian — One Hundred Fourteen Years to Remember . Burlington, 
NC: Allen Hammer Endowment, 1980. 

Thomas, Allen. A History of Friends in America. Philadelphia: 
Winston, 1980. 

Weeks, Stephen B. Southern Quakers and Slavery. Baltimore: Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1896. 

What Do Friends Believe? Planning and Promotional Council: 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting, 1966. 

Whitaker, Walter. Centennial History of Alamance County 1849 - 
1949. Charlotte: Dowd, 1949. 


Cane Creek 

Woolman, John. Journal. London: J. Phillips, 1775. (Everyman's 
Library, London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1922.) 


Cane Creek Monthly Meeting Minutes, 1751-1909. 
Cane Creek Pastoral Committee Minutes, 1940-1948. 
Cane Creek Sunday School Records, 1901. 

Cane Creek Hackney-Reece Missionary Society Minutes, 1940- 

Cane Creek Junior Missionary Society Minutes, 1940-1950. 
Pleasant Hill Temperance Society Minutes, 1930-1953. 




Abigail House 114 
Advocate, The 115 
Agriculture Club 1 1 
Alamance County 13 
Albemarle 11 
Albright, D. H. 127 
Albright, William 122, 133 
Aldrage, Martin 14 
Aldrage, William 14 
Allen 82 
Allen, Amy 58 
Allen, Beulah 105 
Allen, Bob 99 
Allen, George 52 
Allen, Harrison 94 
Allen, John 35 

Allen, John, house built by 19 (photo) 
Allen, Lester and Olive 52 
Allen, Rachel 125 
Allen, Samuel 47 
Allen, Walter 94, 95 
Allen-Hammer Memorial School 112 
Anson County 13, 14 
Antislavery movement 75 
Armstrong, Joshua 115 


Back Creek Meeting 24, 25 

Ballenger, Henry 19 

Ballinger, Hannah 41 

Baltimore Association 108, 109 

Bass's Mountain 13 

Battle of Alamance 61, 65, 141 

Battle of Guilford Court House 32, 42, 

66, 141 
Battle of New Garden 42 
Bell's Mill 67 

Bladen County 13, 14, 56 
Boggs, Tom and Tim 134 
Bonlee 25 

Brandywine Creek 14 

Branson, Levi 66 
Branson, Thomas 58 
Bright, Captain Simon 62 
British Friends 21 

British soldiers, memorial to, photo 37 

Brooks, Joel 33 

Brown, Thomas 14 

Brown, William and Hannah 14 

Brown, William and Hannah Moon 14 

Brush Creek 27 

Burlington 31 

Bush River 70 


Cane Creek 70 

Cane Creek Cemetery, photo 33 
Cane Creek Meetinghouse 2 

(photo), 50 (photo) 
Cane Creek members 86 (photo) 
Cane Creek Valley 1 3 
Cantor, Jones 126 
Cape Fear 28 
Carbonton 28 
Carolina Proprietors 1 
Carter 81 
Carter, David 96 
Carter, James 14 
Carter, John 26, 42 
Carter, Kathryn Dixon 97, 117 (photo) 
Carter, Norman 97 
Carver's Creek Meeting 56 
Cell, Jonathan 58 
Centering down 83 
Centerville 1 5 
Centre 24 
Centre Meeting 1 5 
Chamness, Anthony 14 
Chamness, Anthony and Sarah Cole 

14, 15, 38 
Chamness' Creek 127 
Chamness, John 13 
Chamness, Joshua 104 

Cane Creek 

Charleston Fund 47 

Charlie Stout House 108 

Chatham County 13, 22, 25, 28, 29 

Chatham Meetinghouse 141 

Childs and Corbin 55 

Christian Endeavor Society 101, 102 

Christiana Hundred 15 
Church of England 46 
Clark, Alexander and Ann Johnson 1 1 5 
Clark, Dougan 115 
Clark, Eliza 115 
Cloud, Hannah 94 
Cloud, Joseph 26, 41, 94 
Coble, Claude 48 
Coble, Finley and Georgia 74 
Coble, J. Randolph 123 
Coble, Joe 139 

Coble, Mary J. 90, 91 (photo) 
Coble, William 53 
Company Shops 78 
Cook, Charity Wright 94 
Cornwallis, Lord 32, 66, 14 1 
Councilman, George 75 
County Armagh 1 4 
Courtney, James and Joseph 1 14 
Courtney, William 114 
Cox 81 

Cox, Alfred 99 

Cox, Eliza Clark Armstrong 

94, 115, 116 
Cox, Joseph 1 1 5 
Cox, Oscar 95 
Cox, Oscar and Belle 95 
Cox, Phoebe Allen 58 
Cox, William 27, 60 
Cox's Settlement 27 
Crooks, Rev. Adam 75 
Crosdale, Grace 41 
Crow, Robert and Lola 1 44 


Daily Vacation Bible Schools 102 
Deep River 24, 25, 28, 36 
Deep River Monthly Meeting 25 

Delaware 1 1 
Dicks, Zachariah 42 
Disownments 119,121 
Dixon 82 

Dixon, Anna Lois 100, 105 (photo), 

117 (photo) 
Dixon, Caleb 99, 110 
Dixon, Cicero 111 
Dixon, E. P. 38 
Dixon, Elizabeth 15, 140 
Dixon, Elizabeth Allen 35 
Dixon, Eula 123, 130, 131 (photo), 


Dixon, Eula and Florence 87 
Dixon, H. W. 132 
Dixon, Hugh 47, 75, 132 
Dixon, Hugh and Thomas C. 129 
Dixon, Jesse 34 (photo), 127 
Dixon, Jim 50 
Dixon, Joe 130 
Dixon, John 99 
Dixon, Lydia 100 

Dixon, Lydia, Sunday School class of 

101 (photo) 
Dixon, Mahlon 103 
Dixon, Milo 94, 95 
Dixon, Simon 15,19,35,54,58, 

59, 60, 62, 67, 75, 125, 140, 142 
Dixon, Simon, dedication of grave 

marker 35 (photo) 
Dixon, Solomon 47 
Dixon, Thomas 85, 94,95, 130 
Dixon, William 14, 94 
Dixon, Zeno 92, 94, 111 
Dixon-Marshall reunion 37 
Dixon's Meeting 29 
Dixon's Mill 67, 68 (photo) 
Doan 81 
Doan, Joseph 19 
Doan, Ruth Dixon 33 
Dunn's Creek 28 
Durham, Everett 135 
Durham, Lena 117 (photo) 
Durham, Mildred 1 17 (photo) 




Earl of Granville 55 
Eastern Shore 1 1 
Edgerton, Anna 103 
Edmondson, William 1 1 
Edward Hill 24, 25 
Edward Hill Meeting 23 
Edwards 81 
Eli Whitney area 14 1 
Elizabeth Vestal 1 9 
Eno 22, 30 
Eno Meeting 30 
Eno River 13 
Euliss, Jim 140 
Euliss, Juanita 126 
Evangelism and Church Extension 
Committee 91 


Fairmont 107 
Fairmount Foundry 127 
Fall Festival, 1948 53 
Fanning, Edmund 59 
Fellowship building 52 
First Day Schools 99 
First monthly meeting 19 
Flint Hill 111 
Fogleman, Bill 137 
Fogleman's Shool 107 
Forsyth County 36 
Fort Bragg 140 
Fox, George 1 1 

Frederick County, Virginia 11, 16 
Fredricksburg 70 
Freedom's Hill 75 
Freedom's Hill Church 79 
Freedom's Hill Wesleyan Methodist 

Church 76 (photo) 
Friends Youth Fellowship 102 
Friendsville 70 
Frye, Willie and Agnes 144 


George VI 36 
Georgia 26 

Gibson, Cora Lee 51 (photo) 
Gibson, Hardy Slate 51 (photo) 
Gift of ministry 84 
Good Templar Society 108 
Good Templars 123 
Graham Friends Meeting 30 
Graham Gull Plank Road Company 

Granville Estates 1 
Great Trading Path 1 2 
Green, Callie 87 

Greene, General Nathanael 42, 66 
Griffin, Ed 135 

Griffin, Ed and Lorraine 90, 138 
Griffin, Lorraine 49 
Griffin, Pearl 96 

Griffin, Wilma 6,105, 126, 139 
Griffith, John 4l 
Guilford County 13 


Hackett 82 

Hackney, Margaret 95 

Hackney Reece Circle 118 

Hadley 82 

Hadley, Thomas l-tl 

Hammer, Isaac and Jane Allen 1 1 1 

Hardy, William 139 

Harris, Edward 95 

Harvey 82 

Hayes, Judge Johnson J. 1 23 
Hedgecock's Creek Meeting 29 
Hendricks, Thomas 95 
Henley, James 49 
Henley, William 47, 127 
Hiatt, John 19 
Hiatt, Martha 1 9 
High Falls 29 
Hill, Joseph 104 
Hillsborough 12, 13, 22, 30 
Hinshaw 82 
Hinshaw, Ben 107 
Hinshaw, Franklin 126 
Hinshaw, Ruth M. 100 
Hinshaw, Seth 28, 140 


Cane Creek 

Hinshaw, Tyree 126 

Hinshaw, William 107 

Historical Society of Southern Alamance 

County 34 
Hobson 81 
Hobson, Miles 99 
Hodgin, Mark and Olivia 144 
Hodgin, Thomas C. 94 
Holly Spring 24, 27 
Holly Spring Meeting 29 
Holman brothers 129 
Holman's Store 134 
Holt, E. M. 128 
Hopewell Friends Meeting 12 
Hopewell Meeting 16, 116 
Hornaday, Henry 135 
Hornaday, Louis 47 
Huffey, Chris 64 
Hunter, James 60 
Hunting Branch 107 
Husband, Amy Allen 58 
Husband, Herman 

28, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 122 
Husbands, Harmon 59 
Hutchison, R. H. 38 


Immigration 1 1 

Indiana 81 

Indulged meeting 25 

Institute of Outdoor Drama 139 


Jamaica 116 

Jay, Allen 149 

Jenny, Sarah 41 

Johnson, Eliza 91 (photo) 

Jones, Aaron 19 

Jones, John 14 

Jones, Mary 41 

Jones, Thomas 14 

Junior and Young Friends Yearly 

Meeting 102 
Junior circle 118 


Kemp, Richard 14 
Kennedy, John and Sarah 144 
Kennett Square 1 5 
Kernersville 36 
Kimball, Lucy 118 
King, Francis T. 148 
Kirby, Mary 41 
Kirkman, William 74 


Lancaster 107 

Lancaster County, South Carolina 

Lancaster School 108 

Land grants 1 4 

Langley School 107 

Laughlin, Hugh and Mary 14 

Lawson, John 10 

Lederer, Dr. John 9 

Liberty 28 

Lindley, Thomas 60 

Litler, Mincher 42 

Little Pee Dee River 26 

Little River 17, 18 

Little Ward Mill 126, 137 

Long, William 100 

Longest, Lu and Carl 52 

Long's Mill Meeting 29 

Lost Creek 70 

Lower Deep River 27 

Lutheran 1 1 


Maddock,Jos. 58 
Maris, William 14 
Marshall 82 

Marshall, John and William 58 
Marshall, William and Rebecca Dix 

36,45, 46 
Marshburn, Obed 99 
Martin, Benjamin 14 
Martin, Josiah 63 
Martin, Zachariah 14 
Maryland 11 



Mary's Creek 1 3 

Matthews, Dale 97 

Matthews, Dale and Marilyn 144 

McFarland, Lewis 38 

McFarland, Lewis and Pearl 95, 144 

McPherson, Christine 117 (photo) 

McPherson, Coy 140 

McPherson, Lawrence 45 

McPherson, Luther 94 

McPherson, Micajah 75, 79, 80 (photo) 

McVey, Tom 130, 132 

Medford, Bob and Pam 144 

Meeting for Sufferings 80 

Meeting libraries 103 

Meetinghouse, fifth 49 

Meetinghouse, fourth 48 (photo) 

Meetinghouse, second 45 

Meetinghouse, third 46 

Melvin, Robert H. 95 

Methodist Episcopal Church 75 

Micajah McPherson, photo 80 

Micklejohn, Revd Mr 60 

Mill Creek Meeting 27 

Millikan, Benjamin and Pearl 144 

Mills, Thomas 25 

Monrovia 115 

Monthly Meeting Schools 107 
Moon 82 

Moon, Ruth 49, 105 (photo), 117 

Moore County 29 
Moore, Joseph 109, 149 
Moore, Lindley 94 
Mosely, Edward 55 

Mount Pleasant Methodist Church 1 14 
Muddy Creek 36 
Mudlick 107 


Napton Meeting 27 
New Bern 54 

New Castle County, Delaware 1 5 
New Garden 13, 22, 24 
New Garden Boarding School 130 
New Garden Meeting 19 

New Hope 70 

New Hope Meetinghouse 14 1 
New Jersey 1 1 
Newberry 70 
Newlin 82 

Newlin, Elbert 48, 49, 95, 101 
Newlin, Elbert and Inez 96 (photo), 144 
Norman, Cora Lee 144 


Ohio 70, 81 

Old Dam Road 126 

Orange County 13 

Osborne, Don and Virginia 144 

Overman, Henry 37 


Parish of Segoe 14 

Pasquotank 1 1 

Pasquotank County 16 

Pathway to Freedom 1 4 1 

Pee Dee 26 

Pee Dee Meeting 26 

Pegg, Rufus 95 

Peisley, Mary 40 

Pennsylvania 1 1 

Perquimans 1 1 

Perquimans County 17 

Philadelphia Meeting 99 

Philadelphia Meeting for Sufferings 47 

Phillips, Catherine 40 

Pickett, Nathan 1 04 

Pickett, Sarah 90 

Pickett, W. T. 99 

Pickett, W. Taylor 123 

Piedmont 107 

Piggat (Pickett), William 59 

Piggot, Benjamin 46 

Piggot, Jeremiah 64 

Piggot, William 46, 66 

Pike 82 

Pike, Abigail Overman 17, 18, 41, 42, 

Pike, Clara 100 

Pike, Gertrude 117 (photo) 


Cane Creek 

Pike, John 14 

Pike, John and Abigail Overman 

14, 16, 35 
Pike, Nathan 14 
Pike, Phoebe 117 (photo) 
Pike, Virgil 95 
Plank road 132 

Pleasant Hill Temperance Scciety 122 

Pottery shop 1 34 

Powell, John 19 

Powell, William 65 

Preparative meeting 21 

Primm, Sarah 105 (photo) 

Prosperity 29 

Prosperity Monthly Meeting 29 
Pugh, Lydia 115 
Pugh, Mary 56, 58 
Pugh, Thomas 41, 104 


Quaker Lake 102 

Quaker Peace Testimony 78 


"Rachel Wright Affair" 57 
Raleigh 31 
Ramsey's Mill 67 

Randolph County 13, 27, 28, 141 
Reaves, Mark 45 
Reckett, William 23, 26, 28 
Recorded minister in the Society of 

Friends 93 
Recorded ministers 84 
Reece, Georgia Griffith 95, 101, 116 
Reece, Miles 1 16 
Reece, Miles and Georgia 94 
Reformed 1 1 
Regulator Movement 56 
Regulators 14 1 
Religious instruction 98 
Revolutionary War 65 
Reynolds, William 19 
Ridge 27 

River Monthly Meeting 23 
Roach, Bill 134 

Roach, Monroe 79 

Roach, Morris 49 

Robertson, Hadley and Anne 144 

Rocky River 22, 24 

Rollins, Bascom 105 (photo) 

Rollins, Bascom and Dovie 144 

Routh, Wesley 126 


Sabbath School 100 

Sandy Creek Meeting 27 

Saxapahaw Boy Scouts, Troop 46 36 

Scotch-Irish Presbyterians 10 

Scott, Governor Robert 140 

Scott, Kerr 53 

Sides, John and Sharon 144 

Singing schools 86 

Sissipahaw 9 

Smith, David 1 14 

Smith, James 107 

Snow Camp 10 

Snow Camp Cotton Factory 128 
Snow Camp Foundry 127, 128, 129 
Snow Camp Historical Drama Society 

138, 139, 140, 141 
Snow Camp Manufacturing Company 


Snow Camp Market 134, 135 
Snow Camp Woolen Mill 129, 130 
Sons of Temperance 123 
Sophia 141 
South Carolina 26 
Southern Alamance High School 53 
Southern High School 112 
Spring 24, 30 
Spring Meeting 25, 30 
Springfield Meeting 80 
Stafford, John 132 
Stafford, Nathan 127 
Stafford, Ruth 115 
Stanfield, Hannah Hadley Dixon 38 
Stanfield, John 14, 45 
Stanfield, Thomas 45 
State Agriculture and Mechanical Arts 
College 131 



Stephens, Algie 139 
Stockard, W. J. 127 
Stout 81 
Stout, Charlie 49 
Stout, Flora 90, 123 
Stout, Margaret Cypert 36 
Stout, Peter 36, 46, 104, 128 
Stout, Thomas 107 
Stuart, Alexander 35 
Stuart, Burton and Emma 52 
Stuart, Cicero 90 
Stuart, Delia 52 
Stuart, Lyndon 90 
Stuart, Lyndon, photo 105 
Stuart, Maurice 94, 95, 126 
Stuart, Plato 52 
Subscription schools 107 
Summers, Robert 19 
Sumner, Mark 139 
Swepsonville 1 2 

Sword of Peace, The 138, 140, 141 
Sylvan Academy 108, 130 (photo) 
Sylvan of the Grove Academy 108, 109 
Sylvan School 49, 52, 95, 127 

Tart, President 130 

Teague, Alice 117 (photo) 

Teague, Paula 94 

Teague, York 94, 94 (photo) 

Teague, York and Alice 144 

Temperance Committee 123 

Textile industry 1 27 

Thomas, Ed 108 

Thomas, Herman 122 

Thomas, Walter 48 

Thompson, Amy 94 

Thompson, Annie Andrews 88 (photo) 

Thompson, Calvin 99 

Thompson, Dougan 90 

Thompson, Ella 91 (photo) 

Thompson, Harrison 90 

Thompson, Hayes 87, 90, 135, 137 

Thompson, Isaac Holt 79 

Thompson, Jasper 94 

Thompson, Jesse 48, 88 (photo) 
Thompson, Joanna 1 1 8 
Thompson, John 45 
Thompson, Lizzie 103 
Thompson, Lorena 117 (photo) 
Thompson, Martha 91 (photo) 
Thompson, Mary Ann 79 
Thompson, Mattie 117 
Thompson, F. Paul 137 
Thompson, Paul P. 49 
Thompson, Sybil 91 (photo) 
Thompson, Verla 1 17 (photo) 
Thompson, William 

75, 104, 107, 127 
Thompson, William Jesse 45 
Tick Creek 27 
Tickle, Don and Ann 144 
Tidewater 1 1 
Tidwell, John 14 
Tidwell, William 14 
Toll stations 132 

Tomlinson, Allen J. 109, 110 (phot 
Townsend, John 45 
Transportation and Entertainment 

Committee 90 
Trotter's Creek 27 
Tryon, Governor William 

54, 55, 60, 62, 141 
Tyson, Fanny 130 
Tyson's 28 
Tyson's Meeting 28 
Tyson's Settlement 41 


Underground Railroad 74, 1 4 1 
Unthank, Timple 127 
Upper Richland Creek 27 


Vernon, Isaac 58 

Vestal, Alfred 75 

Vestal, David 46 

Vestal, Marshall and David 73 

Vestal, William and Thomas 1 9 

Vincent, Mr. 133 


Cane Creek 


Wateree 70 
Weeks, Stephen B. 30 
Weighty Friends 35, 120 
Weisner, William 104 
Wells 82 

Wells, Joseph And Charity 14 
Wesleyan Campground near Colfax, NC 


Wesleyan Methodist Connection of 

America 75 
West Point 107 
West River 56 

West Union Friends Meeting 1 1 5 
Western Quarterly Meeting 30 
Western Yearly Meeting 116 
Wheeler 82 
White, Roxie Dixon 94 
Whitehead, Kathlene 1 17 (photo) 
Willard, Mr. 129 
Williams, George 14 
Williams, Inez 117 (photo) 
Williams, James 14 
Williams, Margaret 75 
Williams, Murphy 127 
Williams, Nona 1 17 (photo) 
Wilson, Bobby 138, 139 
Wilson, Brian 94 

Wilson, James 138 
Wilson, Rachel 41 
Wilson, Sarah 114 
Winslow, Clara 139 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 

Woman's Missionary Society 116 
Women's Missionary Society of Cane 

Creek 116 
Women's Missionary Union 115, 116 
Wood, Kenneth and Hope 144 
Woody, J. Milton 99 
Woody, J. Waldo and Lutie 

96, 97, 103, 144 
Woody, James 104 
Woody, Mary C. 90 
Woody, Milton 81 
Woody, Nathaniel 92 
Woolman, John 72 
Wright, Annie 117 
Wright, Blake 94 
Wright, Jeremiah and John 41 
Wright, John 14 

Wright, John and Rachel Wells 14 
Wright, Rachel 17, 18, 41, 58 
Wright, Sarah 14 
Wrightsborough 70 

Cane Creek Friends Meeting 
605 W. Greensboro-Chapel Hill Rd., Snow Camp, NC 27349 

North Carolina Friends Historical Society 
P.O. Box 8502, Greensboro, NC 27419 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends 
5506 W. Friendly Ave., Greensboro, NC 27410 


ISBN 0-942-72725-8